0 V, tunneling current I t = 0 1 nA), (b) 70 × 70

0 V, tunneling current I t = 0.1 nA), (b) 70 × 70 this website nm2, and (c, d) dual-polarity STM images (25 × 15 nm2) acquired at +1.6 and -1.6 V, respectively, and at 20 pA. (e) Topography profile C across the up-and-down terraces of the 16 × 2 superstructure along the white lines indicated in (b). Results and discussion Morphology and structure of the atomically clean Si(110)-16 × 2 surface Figure 1a represents a typical large-scale (850 × 850

nm2) STM image of an atomically clean Si(110)-16 × 2 surface. The parallel up-and-down terraces of the 16 × 2 reconstruction have a huge area exceeding 2 × 2 μm2. Such uniform grating-like terraces over a large region can be used as a perfect template for the large-scale self-organization of a well-ordered parallel silicide

NW array. In Figure 1b, a magnified image (70 × 70 nm2) clearly shows zigzag chains formed on the upper and lower terraces; the period of zigzag chains is 1.4 ± 0.2 nm [31, 32], indicated in Figure 1c. Additionally, two highest terraces with the white contrast are seen together with the pairs of the upper (bright) and lower (dark) terraces. The set of terraces with dark, bright, and white contrasts, due to the vertical height difference, forms the (17 15 1) vicinal facet and often coexist in 16 × 2 reconstruction [33]. Figure 1c,d depicts the empty-state and see more filled-state STM images of this 16 × 2 reconstruction at atomic resolution. A pair of Si pentagons/tetramers forming zigzag chains in the upper and lower terraces is clearly resolved, as marked by two schematic pentagons/tetramers on the upper Edoxaban terraces in the empty-state/filled-state STM images, consistent with previous result [32]. Figure 1e buy A-1331852 displays the cross-sectional profile across the up-and-down terraces of the 16 × 2 reconstruction along the line scan C in Figure 1b. The typical width and average height of these periodic upper terraces are 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 300 ± 10 pm, respectively, and the periodicity (i.e., the

pitch) of the uniformly spaced upper terraces is 5.0 ± 0.1 nm. These nanoscale sizes of upper and lower terraces on the Si(110) surface can make the template-directed self-organization with atomic precision. Coverage-dependent morphologies and structures of CeSi x NWs Figure 2 shows a series of STM topographic images of CeSi x NWs self-organized on the Si(110) surface for different Ce coverages. At the initial growth stage (i.e., 1-ML Ce deposition) in Figure 2a, besides the pristine upper and lower Si terraces with the zigzag chains of pentagon pair, we can obviously see that two straight and robust CeSi x NWs are formed on the upper Si terraces due to the preferential reactivity of Ce atoms with Si pentagon pair on the upper terraces, consistent with the formation of GdSi x /ErSi x NWs on the upper terraces of Si(110) [23, 25].

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