01) at both 1 h and 2 h pi in the high-MOI infection (these data are only semi-quantitative since the primer efficiencies in
the RT reaction are not necessarily equal for the two transcripts). Thus, the proportion of AST Silmitasertib to ie180 mRNA [(RAST-low MOI/Rie-low MOI)/(RAST-high MOI)/Rie-high MOI)] was 39-fold higher at 1 h pi and 293-fold higher at 2 h pi in the low-MOI than in the high-MOI infection. In the early stages of PRV infection, the amount of AST was very high; it even significantly exceeded the level of ie180 mRNAs at 2 h pi in the low-MOI infection, while the amount of AST and also its ratio to ie180 mRNA were extremely low in the high-MOI infection. Moreover, ie180 mRNA is expressed to a significantly higher extent in the low-MOI experiment despite the 10 times lower copy number of PRV DNA in an infected cell, which is especially important because IE180 is a DNA-binding protein. We think that this observation reveals an important regulatory mechanism of the herpesviruses, which is
as selleck chemicals llc follows: in a high-titre infection, the virus initiates a lytic infection in a cell, while in a low-titre infection, the virus has the choice of whether to establish a dormant state or enter a lytic cycle in a cell. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon might be based on the interaction of ie180 and AST genes at both the transcription and translation levels. (1) The ie180 protein might exert a negative effect on the synthesis of AST, such as in LAT in HSV  by binding the promoter of the antisense transcript. (2) Furthermore, the complementary transcripts might mutually Verteporfin cell line influence each other’s expression transcript by RNA-RNA interaction. In a low-MOI infection, the two transcripts exhibit a complementary expression pattern, which indicates a competition between the two transcripts. In a high-MOI infection, however, the high initial amount of ie180 gene JSH-23 product inhibits the expression of AST. The significance of this infection strategy could be that, in
the case of a low-amount infection, the virus has no chance to invade the host cells; therefore, it is better to hide against the immune surveillance. The ep0 gene is expressed in higher quantity at both 1 h pi (4.22-fold) and 2 h pi (2.43-fold) in the high-MOI infection than in low-MOI infection, which is in contrast with LAT, its antisense partner, whose expression level was lower in the high-MOI infection (1 h: 0,5-fold; 2 h: 0,18-fold). Thus, the ratios of LAT to ep0 mRNA molecules were 8.33-fold higher at 1 h pi and 13.05-fold higher at 2 h pi in the low-MOI than in the high-MOI experiment, although, unlike AST, LAT is abundantly expressed in the high-MOI infection. Accordingly, similarly to AST, LAT is expressed in a significantly higher proportion to ep0 mRNA in the low-MOI infection in the early stages of infection, which may also be important as concerns of the replication strategy of the virus.