01) at both 1 h and 2 h pi in the high-MOI infection (these data

01) at both 1 h and 2 h pi in the high-MOI infection (these data are only semi-quantitative since the primer efficiencies in

the RT reaction are not necessarily equal for the two transcripts). Thus, the proportion of AST Silmitasertib to ie180 mRNA [(RAST-low MOI/Rie-low MOI)/(RAST-high MOI)/Rie-high MOI)] was 39-fold higher at 1 h pi and 293-fold higher at 2 h pi in the low-MOI than in the high-MOI infection. In the early stages of PRV infection, the amount of AST was very high; it even significantly exceeded the level of ie180 mRNAs at 2 h pi in the low-MOI infection, while the amount of AST and also its ratio to ie180 mRNA were extremely low in the high-MOI infection. Moreover, ie180 mRNA is expressed to a significantly higher extent in the low-MOI experiment despite the 10 times lower copy number of PRV DNA in an infected cell, which is especially important because IE180 is a DNA-binding protein. We think that this observation reveals an important regulatory mechanism of the herpesviruses, which is

as selleck chemicals llc follows: in a high-titre infection, the virus initiates a lytic infection in a cell, while in a low-titre infection, the virus has the choice of whether to establish a dormant state or enter a lytic cycle in a cell. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon might be based on the interaction of ie180 and AST genes at both the transcription and translation levels. (1) The ie180 protein might exert a negative effect on the synthesis of AST, such as in LAT in HSV [46] by binding the promoter of the antisense transcript. (2) Furthermore, the complementary transcripts might mutually Verteporfin cell line influence each other’s expression transcript by RNA-RNA interaction. In a low-MOI infection, the two transcripts exhibit a complementary expression pattern, which indicates a competition between the two transcripts. In a high-MOI infection, however, the high initial amount of ie180 gene JSH-23 product inhibits the expression of AST. The significance of this infection strategy could be that, in

the case of a low-amount infection, the virus has no chance to invade the host cells; therefore, it is better to hide against the immune surveillance. The ep0 gene is expressed in higher quantity at both 1 h pi (4.22-fold) and 2 h pi (2.43-fold) in the high-MOI infection than in low-MOI infection, which is in contrast with LAT, its antisense partner, whose expression level was lower in the high-MOI infection (1 h: 0,5-fold; 2 h: 0,18-fold). Thus, the ratios of LAT to ep0 mRNA molecules were 8.33-fold higher at 1 h pi and 13.05-fold higher at 2 h pi in the low-MOI than in the high-MOI experiment, although, unlike AST, LAT is abundantly expressed in the high-MOI infection. Accordingly, similarly to AST, LAT is expressed in a significantly higher proportion to ep0 mRNA in the low-MOI infection in the early stages of infection, which may also be important as concerns of the replication strategy of the virus.

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