Advances that further elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of granins, coupled with improvements in biomarker technology and direct clinical application, should increase the translational
effectiveness of this family of proteins in disease diagnosis and drug discovery. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Orexins are neuropeptides produced in the lateral hypothalamus and implicated in regulation of sleep-wake cycle. Selective loss of orexin neurons is found in the brain of patients with narcolepsy, but the mechanisms of this pathological change are unclear. A previous study showed that excessive stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by quinolinic acid (QA) caused selective loss of orexin neurons in rat hypothalamic slice culture. Here we examined QA toxicity on orexin neurons and melanin-concentrating www.selleckchem.com/products/pi3k-hdac-inhibitor-i.html hormone (MCH) neurons in vivo. Contrary to the expectation, injection of QA (60 and 120 nmol) into the lateral hypothalamus of male C57BL/6 mice caused selective loss of MCH neurons rather than orexin neurons, and this toxicity of QA was attenuated by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. Selective loss of MCH
neurons with preserved orexin neurons was observed even when GABA(A) receptor antagonists such as bicuculline and picrotoxin were injected with QA. A significant decrease in the number of orexin neurons was induced when QA injection was performed in the dark phase of diurnal cycle, but the degree of the decrease was still lower than that in the number of MCH neurons. Finally, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/sn-38.html QA (60 nmol) induced selective loss of MCH neurons also in young rats at 3-4 weeks of age. These results do not support the hypothesis that acute excitotoxicity mediated by NMDA receptors is responsible for the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published AICAR price by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a neurotrophic factor with important effects in survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons that has been suggested to
play important roles in drug of abuse-induced neurotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, we have studied the effects of amphetamine (10 mg/kg, four times, every 2 h) on the nigrostriatal pathway of PTN genetically deficient (PTN-/-) mice. We found that amphetamine causes a significantly enhanced loss of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum of PTN-/- mice compared to wild type (WT+/+) mice. In addition, we found a significant decrease (similar to 20%) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons only in the substantia nigra of amphetamine-treated PTN-/- mice, whereas this area of WT+/+ animals remained unaffected after amphetamine treatment. This effect was accompanied by enhanced amphetamine-induced astrocytosis in the substantia nigra of PTN-/- mice.