Collectively, these results indicate that MFG-E8 in a dose-depend

Collectively, these results indicate that MFG-E8 in a dose-dependent manner coordinates the expression of cell cycle molecules and facilitates VSMC proliferation via integrin/ERK1/2 signaling. Thus, an increase in MFG-E8 signaling is a mechanism of the age-associated increase in aortic VSMC proliferation.”
“A dual navigator-gated, flow-sensitive alternating

inversion recovery (FAIR) true fast imaging selleck with steady precession (True-FISP) sequence has been developed for accurate quantification of renal perfusion. FAIR methods typically overestimate renal perfusion when respiratory motion causes the inversion slice to move away from the imaging slice, which then incorporates unlabeled https://www.selleckchem.com/products/z-devd-fmk.html spins from static tissue. To overcome this issue, the dual navigator scheme was introduced to track inversion and imaging slices, and thus to ensure the same position for both slices. Accuracy was further improved by a well-defined bolus

length, which was achieved by a modification version of Q2TIPS (quantitative imaging of perfusion using a single subtraction, second version with interleaved thin-slice TI(1) periodic saturation): a series of saturation pulses was applied to both sides of the imaging slice at a certain time after the inversion. The dual navigator-gated technique was tested in eight volunteers. The measured renal cortex perfusion rates were between 191 and 378 mL/100 g/min in the renal cortex with a mean of 376 mL/100 g/min. The proposed technique may prove most beneficial for noncontrast-based renal perfusion quantification in young children and patients who may have difficulty holding their breath for prolonged periods or are sedated/anesthetized. Magn Reson Med 64:1352-1359, 2010. (C)2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Legumes are the third-largest family of angiosperms, the second-most- important crop family, and a key source of biological nitrogen in agriculture. Recently, the genome sequences of Glycine max (soybean), Medicago truncatula, and Lotus japonicus were substantially completed. Comparisons among legume genomes reveal a key role for duplication, especially a whole-genome duplication event approximately

58 Mya that is shared by most agriculturally important Emricasan ic50 legumes. A second and more recent genome duplication occurred only in the lineage leading to soybean. Outcomes of genome duplication, including gene fractionation and sub- and neofunctionalization, have played key roles in shaping legume genomes and in the evolution of legume-specific traits. Analysis of legume genome sequences also enables the discovery of legume-specific gene families and provides a framework for genome-wide association mapping that will target phenotypes of special importance in legumes. Translating genomic resources from sequenced species to less studied but still important “orphan” legumes will enhance prospects for world food production.

Conclusions: Together these observations point to a role for

\n\nConclusions: Together these observations point to a role for DDK-mediated phosphorylation of Mcm2 in the response to replicative stress, including some forms of DNA damage. We suggest that phosphorylation of Mcm2 modulates Mcm2-7 activity resulting in the stabilization of replication forks in response to replicative GSK690693 solubility dmso stress.”
“The International Staging Committee (ISC) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) collected

68,463 patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer and 13,032 patients with small cell lung cancer, registered or diagnosed from 1990 to 2000, whose records had adequate information for analyzing the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification. The T, N, and M descriptors were analyzed, and recommendations for changes in the seventh edition of the TNM classification were proposed based on differences in survival. For the T component, tumor size was found to have prognostic relevance, and its analysis led to recommendations to subclassify T1 tumors into T1a Z-VAD-FMK chemical structure (<=

2 cm) and T1b (>2 – <= 3 cm) and T2 tumors into T2a (>3 – <= 5 cm) and T2b (>5 – <= 7 cm), and to reclassify T2 tumors > 7 cm into T3. Furthermore, with additional nodules in the same lobe as the primary tumors, T4 tumors would be reclassified as T3; with additional nodules in another ipsilateral lobe, M1 as T4; and with pleural dissemination, T4 as M1. There were no changes in the N category. In the M category, M1 was recommended to be subclassified into M1a (contralateral lung nodules and pleural dissemination) and M1b (distant metastasis). The proposed changes for the new stage grouping were to upstage T2bN0M0 from stage IB to stage IIA, and to downstage T2aN1M1 from stage IIB to stage IIA and T4NO-N1M0

from stage IIIB to stage IIIA. The proposed changes better differentiate tumors of different prognoses. (Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009; 15: 4-9)”
“With the network size increasing, GSK923295 concentration the optical backbone is divided into multiple domains and each domain has its own network operator and management policy. At the same time, the failures in optical network may lead to a huge data loss since each wavelength carries a lot of traffic. Therefore, the survivability in multi-domain optical network is very important. However, existing survivable algorithms can achieve only the unilateral optimization for profit of either users or network operators. Then, they cannot well find the double-win optimal solution with considering economic factors for both users and network operators. Thus, in this paper we develop the multi-domain network model with involving multiple Quality of Service (QoS) parameters.

Survival was not statistically different for patients who underwe

Survival was not statistically different for patients who underwent an immediate cystectomy versus those who were maintained on surveillance with deferred cystectomy if deemed appropriate. Of 333 patients who did not undergo immediate cystectomy, 59 had a deferred cystectomy, and the GSK1904529A inhibitor likelihood of deferred cystectomy was greater in those with T1 disease on restaging TUR (hazard ratio: 2.40; 95% CI, 1.43-4.01; p = 0.001).\n\nConclusions: Restaging TUR should be performed in patients diagnosed with cT1 bladder cancer to improve staging accuracy. Patients with T1 disease on restaging

are at higher risk of progression and should be considered for early cystectomy. (C) 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B. V.

All rights reserved.”
“A 64-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a small brainstem arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Cerebral angiography showed a small AVM in the lateral midbrain, which was fed by a basilar perforating artery, and drained into the right transverse pontine vein and superior petrous vein. Endovascular embolization in the acute stage was selected to occlude the arteriovenous shunt and provide additional intensive treatment for cerebral spasm with lower AZD7762 solubility dmso risk of rebleeding. The AVM was occluded by embolization using n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the ipsilateral pons was detected 1 month after treatment. The causes of the hemorrhage remain unclear.”
“Purpose: The aims of this study were to develop a Croatian version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) and to test its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods: The English version of the OES was translated into Croatian (forward-backward method). The original 11-point scale as well as a 5-point scale (1 = unsatisfactory, 5 = excellent) were

used. Convergent validity was tested on 126 subjects, and discriminative validity was tested on the same subjects divided into four groups: esthetically normal patients (n = 25), esthetically impaired patients (n = 42), esthetically normal controls (n = 37), and esthetically impaired controls (n = 22). Test-retest reliability was tested on 43 subjects. Responsiveness was tested on 32 esthetically impaired patients who received prosthodontic treatment. Results: An additional explanation was added to the first two items of the OES. Convergent validity Staurosporine molecular weight was confirmed by the association between OES scores and self-reported oral esthetics and three questions from the Oral Health Impact Profile related to esthetics (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.734 to 0.811, P <.001). Discriminative validity showed the results as predicted. Test-retest reliability showed high intraclass correlation (0.79 to 0.95) and no significant differences between the two administrations of the 5-point OES scale (P >.05). The 11-point OES scale showed significant differences for questions 3 and 8 (P <.01). Internal consistency showed high Cronbach a values (0.802 to 0.


“Unfractionated heparin is an anti-inflammatory mucoactive


“Unfractionated heparin is an anti-inflammatory mucoactive agent, with the potential to treat

the inflamed and mucus-obstructed airways in patients with cystic fibrosis. In this study, unfractionated heparin has been spray-dried to produce spherical micronized particles in the size range 1-5 m, which is suitable for delivery by dry-powder inhalation. Spray drying parameters have been optimized using a Proton Pump inhibitor 24 factorial experimental design. The feed concentration and atomization spray flow rate have the greatest effects on recovery (typically 60%) and particle size.”
“In this study, Pseudomonas syringe pathovars isolated from olive, tomato and bean were identified by species-specific PCR and their genetic diversity was assessed by repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR. Reverse universal Selleck IWR-1-endo primers for REP-PCR were designed by using the bases of A, T, G or C at the positions of 1, 4 and 11 to identify additional polymorphism in the banding patterns. Binding of the primers to different annealing sites in the genome revealed additional fingerprint patterns in eight isolates of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi and two isolates of P. syringae pv. tomato. The

use of four different bases in the primer sequences did not affect the PCR reproducibility and was very efficient in revealing intra-pathovar diversity, particularly in P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi. At the pathovar level, the primer BOX1AR yielded shared fragments, in addition to five bands that discriminated among the pathovars P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi and P. syringae pv. tomato. REP-PCR with a modified primer containing C produced identical bands among the isolates in a pathovar but separated three pathovars more distinctly than four other primers. Although REP- and BOX-PCRs

LCL161 mw have been successfully used in the molecular identification of Pseudomonas isolates from Turkish flora, a PCR based on inter-enterobacterial repetitive intergenic concensus (ERIC) sequences failed to produce clear banding patterns in this study.”
“In the presence of dATP, glycerol, and Tris buffer, the DNA primase isolated from Thermococcus kodakaraensis catalyzed the formation of dAMP and two products that were identified as dAMP-glycerol and dAMP-Tris. These products were formed by the T. kodakaraensis p41 catalytic subunit alone and the T. kodakaraensis p41-p46 complex in the absence of a DNA template. They were not formed with preparations containing the catalytically inactive p41 subunit. Similar glycerol and Tris derivatives as well as dNMPs were also formed with dGTP, dCTP, or dTTP. The mechanism contributing to the formation of these products and its implications in the initiation reaction catalyzed by the T. kodakaraensis primase are discussed.

We conclude that cells need the normal Mad2:Mad1 ratio to respond

We conclude that cells need the normal Mad2:Mad1 ratio to respond to chromosomes that are not under tension.”
“Men who have sex with men (MSM) especially those who are HIV positive are at risk for HPV-associated anal cancer. We systematically reviewed studies with data on the prevalence of vaccine preventable anal HPV among men who have sex with men aged 25 find more or younger and identified 6 studies. None of these studies were specifically designed to determine the prevalence of HPV in this population. Available data, albeit limited, suggest

many young MSM may not already be HPV infected. Further studies using representative sampling focused on teenage MSM are required to confirm this.”
“Purpose: To compare histopathologic findings of patients who underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TUR-B) between groups with and without the metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively click here analyzed data of 535 patients who underwent TUR-B in our department between October 2005 and March 2011. All patients had primary urethelial

cell carcinoma (UCB). Histologic stage, grade, the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, HDL and trigliseride levels were evaluated. The TNM classification was used, with Ta tumor accepted as lower stage and T1 and T2 tumors as higher stage bladder cancers. Also, the pathological grading adopted by the 2004 World Health Organization grading system were applied. Non-invasive papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential were regarded as low grade. Results: Among the total of 509 patients analyzed in our study, there were 439 males (86.2%) and 70 females (13.8%). Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with high histologic grade, and high pathologic stage (p<0.001). Conclusions: The patients with metabolic syndrome were found to have statistically significant higher T stage and grade of bladder cancer. Further studies with more patients are needed to confirm

our study.”
“People with multiple sclerosis may present with a wide range of disease symptoms during the evolution of GF120918 solubility dmso the disease; among these, spasticity can have a marked impact on their well-being and quality of life. Symptom control, including spasticity, remains a key management strategy to improve the patient’s well-being and functional status. However, available drug therapies for spasticity sometimes have limited benefit and they are often associated with poor tolerability. Sativex is a 1:1 mix of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol extracted from cloned Cannabis sativa chemovars, which is available as an oromucosal spray. Clinical experience with Sativex in patients with multiple sclerosis is accumulating steadily.

Overall, the results indicate that metabolic profiling may provid

Overall, the results indicate that metabolic profiling may provide a means of identifying biomarkers that aid selection of viable embryos.”
“Background: NUT midline carcinoma is an aggressive cancer typically caused by the formation of the BRD4-NUT fusion oncoprotein.

Results: BRD4-NUT-stimulated histone hyperacetylation MCC950 inhibitor recruits BRD4 and associated transcription factors to activate gene expression. Conclusion:BRD4-NUT perturbs normal gene expression to trigger oncogenic events in NMC. Significance: Breaking BRD4-NUT interaction with histone acetyltransferases is an excellent strategy to abrogate the BRD4-NUT oncogenic activities. NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare but highly aggressive cancer typically caused by the translocation t(15;19), which results in the formation of the BRD4-NUT fusion oncoprotein. Previous studies have demonstrated

PFTα that fusion of the NUT protein with the double bromodomains of BRD4 may significantly alter the cellular gene expression profile to contribute to NMC tumorigenesis. However, the mechanistic details of this BRD4-NUT function remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the NUT function in transcriptional regulation by targeting it to a LacO transgene array integrated in U2OS 2-6-3 cells, which allow us to visualize how NUT alters the in situ gene transcription dynamic. Using this system, we demonstrated that the NUT protein tethered to the LacO locus recruits p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP), induces histone hyperacetylation, and enriches BRD4 to the transgene array chromatin foci. We also discovered that, in BRD4-NUT expressed in NMC cells, the NUT

moiety of the fusion protein anchored to chromatin by the double bromodomains also stimulates histone hyperacetylation, which causes BRD4 to bind tighter to chromatin. Consequently, multiple BRD4-interacting factors are recruited to the NUT-associated chromatin locus to activate in situ transgene expression. This gene transcription function was repressed by either expression of a dominant negative inhibitor of the p300-NUT interaction or treatment with (+)-JQ1, which dissociates BRD4 from the Selleck SNX-5422 LacO chromatin locus. Our data support a model in which BRD4-NUT-stimulated histone hyperacetylation recruits additional BRD4 and interacting partners to support transcriptional activation, which underlies the BRD4-NUT oncogenic mechanism in NMC.”
“Over the past two decades, gene therapy has garnered tremendous attention and is heralded by many as the ultimate cure to treat diseases such as cancer, viral infections, and inherited genetic disorders. However, the therapeutic applications of nucleic acids extend beyond the delivery of double-stranded DNA and subsequent expression of deficient gene products in diseased tissue.

Conclusion Metformin exerts anti-angiogenesis effects and delays

Conclusion Metformin exerts anti-angiogenesis effects and delays the normal vessel formation in the recovery phase of OIR in mice, likely by suppressing

the levels of Flk1.”
“Aldosterone plays a major role in the regulation of sodium and potassium homeostasis and blood pressure. More recently, aldosterone has emerged as a key hormone mediating end organ damage. In extreme cases, dysregulated aldosterone production leads to primary aldosteronism (PA), the most common form LY2606368 price of secondary hypertension. However, even within the physiological range, high levels of aldosterone are associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension over time. PA represents the most common and curable form of hypertension, with a prevalence that increases with the severity of hypertension. Although genetic causes underlying glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism, one of the three Mendelian forms of PA, were established some time ago, somatic and inherited mutations in the potassium channel GIRK4 have only recently been implicated in the formation of aldosterone-producing adenoma

(APA) and in familial hyperaldosteronism type 3. Moreover, recent findings have shown somatic mutations in two additional genes, involved in maintaining intracellular ionic homeostasis and cell membrane potential, in a subset of APAs.\n\nThis https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gw4869.html review summarizes our current knowledge on the genetic determinants that contribute to variations in plasma aldosterone and renin 4SC-202 order levels in the general population and the genetics of familial and sporadic PA. Various animal models that have significantly improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of excess aldosterone production are also discussed. Finally, we outline the cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic consequences of mineralocorticoid

excess beyond blood pressure regulation.”
“Background: Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is often adopted for making medical devices. Objective: Testing the hypothesis that materials degradation occurs in PVC endotracheal tubes during infant ventilation, thus releasing the known toxic plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Materials and Methods: Endotracheal tubes degradation was assessed by: (1) analysis of color and spectral changes in endotracheal tubes after use in the 400- to 700-nm range and compared to virgin samples. Color changes were expressed as euclidean distances in the Commission International de l’Eclairage Laboratory and Lightness-Chroma-Hue (Munsell’s) color spaces (i.e., Delta E, Delta L, Delta a, Delta b, Delta C, and Delta H units); (2) DEHP leakage was assessed by thermal characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Data from used tubes were compared with those from either virgin devices or submitted to artificial aging, including O(2)-induced oxidation, washing, UV photodegradation and exposition to acid solutions.

Finally, the photocatalytic mechanisms in three different photoca

Finally, the photocatalytic mechanisms in three different photocatalytic systems were discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This study employed a hormone bioassay to characterize the eicosanoids involved in zebrafish ovulation and spawning, in particular the prostaglandin (PG) products of cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolism and the leukotriene (LT) products of lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolism. Exposure to the teleost progestogen 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta P) induced ovulation, but not spawning, in solitary females and both ovulation and spawning

www.selleckchem.com/products/bromosporine.html in male female pairs. Transcription of the eicosanoid-synthesizing enzymes cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) and COX-2 increased and LTC4 synthase decreased in peri-ovulatory

C59 ovaries of 17,20 beta P-exposed fish. Ovarian PGF(2 alpha), levels increased post-spawning in 17,20 beta P-exposed fish, but there was no difference in LTB4 or LTC4. Pre-exposure to cPLA(2) or LOX inhibitors reduced 17,20 beta P-induced ovulation rates, while a COX inhibitor had no effect on ovulation or spawning. Collectively, these findings suggest that eicosanoids, in particular LOX metabolites, mediate 17,20 beta P-induced ovulation in zebrafish. COX metabolites also appear to be involved in ovulation and spawning but their role remains undefined. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro permeation model that will predict the fraction of drugs absorbed in humans. A rotating-diffusion cell with two aqueous compartments, separated by a lipid-impregnated artificial membrane, was used to determine the permeability of drugs under conditions of controlled hydrodynamics. The measured click here effective permeability coefficient was modified to include the paracellular transport derived from a previously

reported colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (Caco-2) permeability study and the effects of unstirred water layer anticipated in vivo.\n\nPermeability data were collected for 31 different marketed drugs with known absolute oral bioavailability and human hepatic clearance data. Literature bioavailability values were corrected for the first pass hepatic clearance thus obtaining the fraction absorbed from intestinal lumen (fraction absorbed), Fa, while assuming that the fraction escaping intestinal extraction, F(g), was approximately similar to 1. Permeability obtained under conditions of controlled hydrodynamics was compared with the permeability measured under unstirred conditions. It is shown that the optimized effective permeability correlates with the fraction absorbed.

Interleukin-6 has been shown to be able to increase the survival

Interleukin-6 has been shown to be able to increase the survival and regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in mixed culture as well as in vivo. In this work we show that the trophic effect of IL-6

is mediated by adenosine receptor (A2aR) activation and also by the presence of extracellular BDNF. We also show that there is a complex cross-talk between IL-6, BDNF, the Adenosine A1 and A2a receptors that results in neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Carbon monoxide (CO) is believed to mediate many of the cytoprotective effects attributed to the activation of heme oxygenase (HO-1), the enzyme responsible for CO production. Recently, the study of CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) MLN8237 ic50 has provided a new approach for the delivery of CO. In the present study, we examined whether the cardioprotective properties of CO-RM2 in isolated rat hearts subjected to an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) sequence were associated with the presence of CO. In addition, the antioxidant properties of CO-RM2 were evaluated. In hearts pretreated with CO-RM2, the improvement in contractile function at the end of the reperfusion period after 20 min of global total ischemia was significantly greater than in controls. These beneficial effects were accompanied by a reduction in 1)

LDH activity release 2) infarct size Epigenetic Reader Do inhibitor 3) ventricular superoxide production. The improvement in myocardial function and the reduction in oxidative stress were not observed when hearts were pretreated with inactivated CO-RM2 (iCO-RM2). Additionally, CO-RM2, but not iCO-RM2, was found to exert antioxidant properties. GSI-IX concentration These results suggest that the production of CO is a necessary factor in the cardioprotective and antioxidant actions of CO-releasing compound. These results may open up new ground for a novel class of cardioprotective compounds. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“In the title compound,

C14H13ClN+center dot C6H4BrO3S-, the cation exists in an E configuration with respect to the ethenyl bond and is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the pyridinium and the benzene rings being 2.80 (7)degrees. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring of the anion and the pyridinium and benzene rings of the cation are 80.88 (7) and 79.05 (7)degrees, respectively. In the crystal, the cations are stacked into columns along the a axis as a result of pi-pi interactions between the pyridinium and chlorobenzene rings with a Cg center dot center dot center dot Cg distance of 3.6976 (8) angstrom. The anions are linked into chains along the a axis by weak C-H center dot center dot center dot O interactions. These anion chains are linked to adjacent cations by additional weak C-H center dot center dot center dot O and C-H center dot center dot center dot Br interactions, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to the ab plane. There are also short O center dot center dot center dot Br [3.

We observed correlations between TBX5 and CAV1 and atrial fibrill

We observed correlations between TBX5 and CAV1 and atrial fibrillation (P = 4.0 x 10(-5) and P = 0.00032, respectively), between TBX5 and advanced atrioventricular block (P = 0.0067), and between SCN10A and pacemaker implantation

(P = 0.0029). We also replicated previously described associations with the QT interval.”
“It is of practical interest to investigate the effect of nitrates on bacterial metabolic regulation of both fermentation and energy generation, as compared to aerobic and anaerobic growth without nitrates. Although gene level regulation has previously been studied for nitrate assimilation, it is important to understand this metabolic regulation in terms of global regulators. In the present study,

check details therefore, we measured gene expression using DNA microarrays, intracellular metabolite concentrations using CE-TOFMS, and metabolic fluxes using the C-13-labeling technique for wild-type E. coli and the Delta arcA (a global regulatory gene C59 Wnt cost for anoxic response control, ArcA) mutant to compare the metabolic state under nitrate conditions to that under aerobic and anaerobic conditions without nitrates in continuous culture conditions at a dilution rate of 0.2 h(-1). In wild-type, although the measured metabolite concentrations changed very little among the three culture conditions, the TCA cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway fluxes were significantly different under each condition. These results suggested that the ATP production rate was 29% higher under nitrate conditions than that under anaerobic conditions, whereas the ATP production rate was 10% lower than that under aerobic conditions. AZD1208 concentration The flux changes in the TCA cycle were caused by changes in control at the gene expression level. In DarcA mutant, the TCA cycle flux was significantly increased (4.4 times higher than that of the wild type) under nitrate conditions. Similarly, the intracellular ATP/ADP ratio increased approximately two-fold compared to that of the wild-type strain.”
“Three beta-glucosidase- and two endoglucanase-encoding genes were cloned from Aspergillus

oryzae, and their gene products were displayed on the cell surface of the sake yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GRI-117-UK. GRI-117-UK/pUDB7 displaying beta-glucasidase AO090009000356 showed the highest activity against various substrates and efficiently produced ethanol from cellobiose. On the other hand, GR1-117-UK/pUDCB displaying endoglucanase AO090010000314 efficiently degraded barley beta-glucan to glucose and smaller cellooligosaccharides. GRI-117-UK/pUDB7CB codisplaying both beta-glucosidase AO090009000356 and endoglucanase AO090010000314 was constructed. When direct ethanol fermentation from 20 g/l barley beta-glucan as a model substrate was performed with the codisplaying strain, the ethanol concentration reached 7.94 g/l after 24 h of fermentation.