Although the oxygen concentration in air, at sea level, does not

Although the oxygen concentration in air, at sea level, does not decrease significantly from 6 degrees to 20-23 degrees C (lack of hypoxia), lowering of both Hb and HbO concentrations by high temperature may cause significant hypoxemia. The latter may lead to inhibition of the activity of muscle mitochondrial respiratory enzymes (ETS). The resulting

inhibition of ATP synthesis and hydrolysis may cause deficit of energy needed for peristalsis/fictive locomotion of body and heart muscles (as indicated by a decrease in heart rate) to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. The buy GNS-1480 upper critical temperature (20-23 degrees C) also slows down the heart rate and causes hyperosmotic stress (hypovolemia). Thus, a rise in soil temperature above 18 degrees C, which inhibits Hb synthesis, Hb oxygenation, and mitochondrial ETS activity, and slows down the heart rate and causes hyperosmotic stress, can make this and higher temperatures lethal to populations of these earthworms, especially in the presence of metabolic inhibitors and respiratory poisons. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.”
“OBJECTIVE: To compare several fracture risk-prediction models and their predictive values.

METHODS: Women older SRT2104 than

age 49 years were sent for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry screening between January 2007 and March 2009. Data collection included multiple osteoporosis risk factors. The ability to identify fractures was analyzed and compared using the North American Menopause Society 2006 and 2010 Position Statements, The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool, along with age alone. The area under the curve PRT062607 (AUC) comparison with chance (AUC 0.50) and paired AUC comparisons between models were used

to investigate the efficacy of each model in predicting osteoporotic fractures.

RESULTS: Among the 615 women studied, with mean (standard deviation) age of 61.4 (8.3) years and 94.5% being white, 15 have experienced a fracture. All screening approaches were significantly better than chance at predicting fractures. Paired comparisons of the detection ability of fracture prediction models showed no significant differences. Age alone was a significant predictor for fracture (AUC 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.91, P,. 001) with the optimal cutoff age of 65 years, which was associated with a sensitivity (95% CI) of 80% (77-83%) and specificity (95% CI) of 73% (70-77%). Compared with young postmenopausal women (younger than 65 years), the odds ratio (95% CI) of fractures in older women (65 years or older) is 10.2 (2.32-44.97).

simiae in two patients Two patients had

simiae in two patients. Two patients had Pinometostat nmr two different mycobacteria species: 1 patient with M. simiae and

MAC and the other with TB and MAC. All eight patients were negative for microscopy.

CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we suggest that routine culture of bronchial specimens for TB is not indicated in patients with a low clinical suspicion of active TB in countries with a low TB burden.”
“It has been observed that a perpendicular interface contribution to the magnetic anisotropy can rotate the easy magnetization direction from within the film plane to perpendicular to the film plane when the Co thickness in Co/Pt multilayers is below a critical value that is in the range of (sub) nanometers. In this work, mixed CoPt phases mainly consisting of disordered fcc CoPt were found to be responsible for the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) for the film deposition end-Hall voltage equal to 140 V. Estimates of mechanisms that could be responsible for the PMA such as “”orange peel”" coupling, exchange bias, and magnetostriction indicate that they are too weak. We believe that this PMA is driven by the heat of mixing

and relatively higher Vorinostat price interfacial energy since the Co layer thickness is about 1 nm. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3070639]“
“BACKGROUND: It is well known that oxidant-antioxidant imbalance plays a key role in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary Duvelisib datasheet disease (COPD).

OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of altered levels of oxidant-antioxidants in disease severity of COPD and correlate it with the degree of airflow obstruction.

METHODS: We assessed malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl levels in blood plasma and examined the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase

and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in erythrocytes. We also evaluated the level of total blood glutathione in whole blood and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in plasma.

RESULTS: Levels of MDA (P < 0.001) and total protein carbonyls (P < 0.01) were significantly increased, while total protein sulfhydryl (P < 0.01) was decreased in COPD patients. We also observed decreased SOD (P < 0.05), GPx (P < 0.01) and catalase (P < 0.05) activity. FRAP (P < 0.001) in plasma was also decreased, whereas total blood glutathione was increased (P < 0.01). Correlations between oxidative stress and antioxidant markers with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) in COPD were negative with plasma TBARS and total blood glutathione, whereas a positive correlation was noticed with erythrocyte GPx and FRAP.

CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance, associated with oxidative stress in COPD patients, plays an important role in the progression of disease severity.

5%) On the whole, the oil was

constituted mainly by sesq

5%). On the whole, the oil was

constituted mainly by sesquiterpenes PFTα in vitro (45.9%), among which sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (27.6%) slightly prevailed over oxygenated sesquiterpenes (18.3%).”
“Bearing in mind the present scenario of the increasing biological tolerance of bacteria against antibiotics, a time controlled two pulse dosage form of amoxicillin was developed. The compression coating inlay tablet approach was used to deliver the drug in two pulses to different parts of the GIT after a well defined lag time between the two releases. This was made possible by formulating a core containing one of the two drug fractions (intended to be delivered as the second pulse), which was spray coated with a suspension of ethyl cellulose and a hydrophilic but water insoluble agent as a pore former (microcrystalline

cellulose). Coating of up to 5% (m/m) was applied over the core tablet, giving a corresponding lag of 3, 5, 7 and 12 h. Increasing the level of coating led to retardation of the water uptake capacity of the core, leading to prolongation of the lag time. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as a hydrophilic but water insoluble porosity modifier in the barrier layer, varying the concentration of which had a significant effect on shortening or prolongation of the lag time. This coated system was further partially compression coated with the remaining drug fraction (to be released as the first immediate release pulse) with a disintegrant, giving a final tablet. The core tablet and the final two pulse inlay tablet were further investigated for their in vitro performance.”
“Structure and elastic properties of boron suboxide at high Selleckchem PF-04929113 pressure have been investigated using generalized gradient approximation within the plane-wave pseudopotential density click here functional theory. The elastic constants are calculated using the finite strain method. The pressure dependences of lattice parameters, elastic constants, aggregate elastic moduli, and sound velocities of boron suboxide are predicted. It is found that the most stable structure of hcp boron suboxide at zero pressure corresponds to the ratio c/a of about 2.274 and the equilibrium

lattice parameters a(0) and c(0) are about 5.331 and 12.124 A degrees, respectively. The high-pressure elastic constants indicate that boron suboxide is mechanically stable up to 368 GPa. The pressure dependence of the calculated normalized volume and the aggregate elastic moduli agree well with the recent experimental results. The sound velocities along different directions for the structure of boron suboxide are obtained. It shows that the velocities of the shear wave decrease as pressure increases but those of all the longitudinal waves increase with pressure. Moreover, the azimuthal anisotropy of the compression and shear aggregate wave velocities for different pressures are predicted. They change behavior with increasing pressure around 87 GPa because of an electronic topological transition.

One of the markers is in the promoter region of the gene (SNP1) a

One of the markers is in the promoter region of the gene (SNP1) and the other is a non-synonymous polymorphism in exon 2 (SNP2). The traits that we evaluated were live weight gain in the spring, gain in backfat thickness in the spring, final live weight, final ultrasound backfat thickness,

final ultrasound rib eye area, carcass weight and length, carcass yield, kidney fat, kidney fat selleck chemicals percentage, backfat thickness, rib eye area, and intramuscular fat percentage. Both markers affected some meat traits; though the only significant associations were of SNP1 with ultrasound rib eye area and of SNP2 with carcass yield and backfat thickness. Under the same conditions as in the present study, leptin markers could be of help only as part of a larger genotyping panel including other relevant genes.”
“We assessed the impact of

nocturia on the general and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for men with localized prostate cancer.

A total CH5183284 supplier of 620 men with prostate cancer were enrolled to our study. All of the subjects completed the questionnaires before primary treatment. We evaluated general HRQOL with the Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36). The prostate-specific HRQOL was assessed with the University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (PCI). Night-time urinary frequency was assessed by the seventh score of the International Prostate Symptom Score.

Of the 581 men, 47 (8%) men reported no nocturia, while 189 (32%) were categorized with one void per night and 345 (59%) with

two or more voids per night. Disease-specific HRQOL, including urinary function, bowel function, and sexual function, was negatively associated with increase in frequency of nocturia. selleckchem The subjects who reported two or more voids per night had significantly lower scores than those of the no nocturia or one void per night group in several domains of the SF-36 and PCI. Based on the proportion odds model, age, urinary function, bowel function, and sexual function showed a strong association with frequency of nocturia.

We found a strong association between the frequency of nocturia and disease-specific HRQOL as well as general HRQOL. Increased severity of nocturia is negatively correlated with overall health status and HRQOL outcomes.”
“Background: Manifestation of central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes respiration is of major prognostic impact in chronic heart failure (CHF). Inflammatory processes have been linked to a progression of cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure. While an association of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to obstructive sleep apnea has been documented before, there is a lack of information regarding variation of CRP levels in patients with CSA. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of CRP levels to CSA severity in CHF patients.

“Methods and Results: R-wave amplitude was determined at i

“Methods and Results: R-wave amplitude was determined at implantation and during follow-up. Each patient was followed after 7 days to optimize device setting and then at 1 and 3 months. The R-wave amplitude obtained with the new technique was significantly higher and

more stable than that obtained with the standard procedure. Our preliminary experience suggests that axillary access for ILR implantation is feasible, safe, well tolerated, and reliable in terms of sensing function and device performance. Moreover, it is superior aesthetically to the standard approach and carries the potential of minimizing permanent scarring after ILR extraction. (PACE 2010; 999-1002).”
“The aim of this study click here was to determine the relationship between seminal zinc concentration and spermatozoa zona pellucida (ZP) binding and the ZP-induced acrosome reaction (ZPIAR) in subfertile men. Semen analyses and seminal zinc concentration assessments were carried out according to the World Health Organization manual for 458 subfertile men. A spermatozoa-ZP interaction test was carried out by incubating 2 x 106 motile spermatozoa with a group of four unfertilized oocytes obtained from a clinical in vitro fertilization programme. After 2

h of incubation, the number of spermatozoa bound per ZP and the ZPIAR of ZP-bound spermatozoa were examined. The effect of adding 0.5 mmol L(-1) zinc to the media on the ZPIAR of spermatozoa from normozoospermic men was also tested in vitro. Seminal zinc concentration positively correlated with sperm count and duration of abstinence, but negatively learn more correlated with semen volume. On analysis of data from all participants, both spermatozoa-ZP binding and the ZPIAR were significantly correlated with sperm motility and normal morphology, but not with seminal zinc concentration. However, in men with normozoospermic semen,

the seminal zinc concentration was significantly higher in men with defective ZPIAR (< 16%) than in those with normal ZPIAR (>= 16%) (P < 0.01). The addition of 0.5 mmol L(-)1 zinc to the culture media had no effect on spermatozoa-ZP selleck screening library binding, but significantly reduced the ZPIAR in vitro (P < 0.001). In conclusion, seminal zinc concentration is correlated with sperm count and the duration of abstinence in subfertile men. In men with normozoospermic semen, high seminal zinc concentration may have an adverse effect on the ZPIAR.”
“In the present work bacteria associated with milk kefir grains from several Brazilian States, Canada and the United States of America under traditional conditions have, for the first time, been studied using a combination of pheno-and genotypic methods. Conventional culturing was performed and a total of 270 isolates were obtained from all samples. Isolates were identified using biochemical tests and partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA.

The thermal durability of the developed systems is studied throug

The thermal durability of the developed systems is studied through thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetics of the polymerization processes is analyzed. The effectiveness of three catalysts commonly used in polyesterification is investigated. The effect of reaction temperature is also examined. The progress of polycondensation reactions

over time takes a nonlinear behavior of slight sigmoidal shape, irrespective of whether or not the reaction is catalyzed. Simple second and third order equations, along with a nonlinear model, are used to determine the kinetic parameters characterizing these reactions. The rate of reaction is enhanced when the reaction temperature is increased. Overall, second-order kinetics well describes the polymerization reactions when the data set is divided into two regions. OICR-9429 manufacturer Antimony trioxide induces a more visible enhancement to the rate of reaction, compared to zinc acetate and sodium acetate. The presence of a catalyst generally increases the reaction activation energy. This indicates that entropy factors outweigh the increase in activation energy and drive the catalyzed reactions to completion. (C) 2011

Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1359-1369, 2012″
“Introduction: Chronic find more cocaine use is associated with some executive deficits. We assessed executive functions using ecologically valid tests in chronic cocaine users.

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between executive deficits and three measures of severity of cocaine

use: years of use, quantity used, and frequency of use.

Methods: Twenty-four cocaine users were compared with twenty-seven community controls. We used Student’s t-test and Chi-squared to compare means and categorical variables, respectively. Linear regression analyses for the adjusted comparative analysis between cases and controls, and severity of cocaine use among cocaine users were performed.

Results: Chronic cocaine users performed worse on measures of attention and working memory (Forward and Backward Digit Span, p < .001), set-shifting abilities (difference score between the Trail Making B and A, TMB-A, p=.006), cognitive test of mental flexibility and response inhibition (Rule Shift Cards) (p < .001), and prefrontal functioning (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST, p=.023) than controls. Years of cocaine use were associated with deficits in the Backward Digit Span VX-770 supplier (p=.041; CI 95%: -.760 to -.002), the TMB-A (p=.026; CI 95%: .687 to 9.761), the Zoo Map (p=.034; CI 95%: -.480 to -.021), and the Rule Shift Cards (p=.006; CI 95%: -.836 to -.164), among others. Quantity of cocaine use was associated with executive deficits measured by the Forward Digit Span (p=.007; CI 95%: -.727 to -.133), the TMB-A (p=.021; CI 95%: 5.304-57.945), and the number of perseverative errors in the WSCT (p=.002; CI 95%: -10.654 to -2.800). Frequency of cocaine was associated with deficits in the Backward Digit Span (p=.042; CI 95%: -1.548 to -.030).

03) Of those with preexisting CAC (Agatston score > 10), thos

03). Of those with preexisting CAC (Agatston score > 10), those who received phylloquinone supplements had 6% less progression than did those who received the multivitamin alone (P = 0.04). Phylloquinone-associated

decreases in CAC progression were independent of changes in serum MGP. MGP carboxylation status was not determined.

Conclusions: Phylloquinone supplementation slows the progression of CAC in healthy older adults with preexisting CAC, independent of its effect on total MGP concentrations. Because our data are hypothesis-generating, further studies are warranted to clarify this mechanism. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. AL3818 nmr gov as NCT00183001. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 1799-807.”
“Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal LY2157299 infectious disease affecting domestic and wild cats. Several reports suggested that TNF-alpha is related to the progression of FIP. Thus, the administration of a feline TNF-alpha-neutralizing antibody to cats with FIP may reduce the disease progression. In this study, we have prepared nine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize feline TNF-alpha. All MAbs neutralized recombinant TNF-alpha. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the MAbs for the cytotoxicity of recombinant TNF-alpha were 5-684 ng/ml. MAb 2-4 exhibited high neutralizing activity

against natural TNF-alpha derived from FIPV-infected macrophages, and was confirmed to inhibit the following feline TNF-alpha-induced

conditions in vitro: (i) an increase in the survival rate of neutrophils from cats with FIP, (ii) aminopeptidase N (APN) mRNA expression in macrophages, and (iii) apoptosis of a feline T-lymphocyte cell line. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Methods: PVAI was performed in 45 patients with paroxysmal AF, either with the cryoballoon technique (n = 15) or radiofrequency ablation (n = 30). Electrocardiograms were recorded before PVAI, 3 and 6 months after ablation.

Results: From CX-6258 purchase the sample (median age 60 [53; 66] years; female 40%), median P-wave duration was 122 [114; 134] ms before PVAI and 116 [106; 124] ms at 3-month follow-up (P < 0.001). IAB was observed in 42 patients (93.3%) before ablation and in 31 patients (68.9%) at 3-month follow-up. Median Ptf was 0.047 [0.020; 0.068] before ablation and 0.013 [0.004; 0.025] at 3-month follow-up (P < 0.001). Twenty-six patients (57.8%) had a Ptf > 0.04 mV x ms before ablation and only one (2.2%) at 3-month follow-up. P-wave duration and Ptf were not significantly modified between 3- and 6-month follow-up.

Conclusion: The terminal part of the P wave is modified after PVAI, perhaps due to the loss of pulmonary vein antrum signals. P-wave duration and Ptf must be carefully interpreted after such a procedure. The prognostic value of these modifications should be evaluated. (PACE 2010; 784-789).

The cure process (80-203 degrees C) was identified through the DS

The cure process (80-203 degrees C) was identified through the DSC curves. The kinetic parameters, activation energy (E), and Arrhenius parameter (A) for the samples containing 0.5-2% PET-R were calculated with the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method. With greater amounts of PET-R added, there was a small change in E for the curing process. A kinetic compensation effect, represented by the equation ln A = -10.5 AZD8186 supplier + 0.29E, was observed for all of the samples. The most suitable kinetic model to describe this curing process was the autocatalytic Sestak-Berggren model, which is applied to heterogeneous systems governed by nucleation and growth. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym

Sci 119: 1316-1321, 2011″
“Objective. The aim of this work was to compare the cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan measurements between buy BYL719 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snorers to develop a prediction model for OSA based on CBCT imaging and the Berlin questionnaire.

Study design. Eighty subjects ( 46 OSA patients with apnea-hypoapnea index [AHI] >= 10 and 34 snorers with AHI <10 based on ambulatory somnographic assessment) were recruited through flyers and mail at the University of Southern California School of Dentistry and at a private practice. Each patient answered the Berlin questionnaire, and was imaged with CBCT in supine position. Linear and volumetric measurements of the upper airway were

performed by one blinded operator, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for OSA.

Results. The OSA patients were predominantly male and older and had a larger neck size and larger body mass index than the snorers. The

minimum cross-sectional area of the upper airway and its lateral dimension were significantly smaller in the OSA patients. Airway uniformity defined as the minimum cross-sectional area divided by the average area was significantly smaller in the OSA patients.

Conclusions. Age >57 years, male gender, “”high risk”" on the Berlin questionnaire, and narrow upper airway lateral dimension (<17 mm) were identified as significant risk factors for OSA. The results of this study indicate that 3-dimensional CBCT airway analysis could be used as a tool to assess the presence and severity of OSA. Selleck Sapitinib The presence and severity ( as measured by the respiratory disturbance index) of OSA is associated with a narrow lateral dimension of the airway, increasing age, male gender, and high-risk Berlin questionnaire. ( Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 285-293)”
“We study the switching-process of the magnetization in a ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayer system by a spin polarized electrical current via the spin transfer torque. We use a spin drift-diffusion equation (SDDE) and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation (LLGE) to capture the coupled dynamics of the spin density and the magnetization dynamic of the heterostructure.

This study assessed the effectiveness of the P A R T Y Program i

This study assessed the effectiveness of the P.A.R.T.Y. Program in preventing traumatic injuries during a period of 10 years (1992-2004).

Methods: P.A.R.T.Y. participants (STUDY) were matched with subjects having the same age, gender, residential

area, and initial year in database, who did not attend the P.A.R.T.Y. Program selleck products (CONTROL). Data from hospital discharge database, and provincial health claims, were searched to determine the incidence of traumatic injuries in both groups. Statistical comparisons were made for the two groups, gender, calendar year, and before and after the graduating driver licensing system was implemented, using the chi(2) and conditional logistic regression analysis with a p < 0.05 considered significant.

Results: Of 3,905 P.A.R.T.Y.

participants, 1,281 were successfully randomly matched on the above 4 variables with 1,281 controls. The most frequent injury was injury by other or homicide 373 of 2,562 (14.8%). There were fewer traumatic injuries in the STUDY group than in the CONTROL group (43.3% AZD3965 inhibitor vs. 47.4%; p = 0.02; OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.45). This difference was stronger in females (44.4% vs. 49.0%; p = 0.04) and before the graduating driver licensing system implementation (60.1% vs. 67.2%; p = 0.04).

Conclusions: The P.A.R.T.Y. Program effectively reduced the incidence of traumatic injuries among its participants. This effectiveness was stronger among females and before the driver licensing system was implemented.”
“The transsphenoidal approach to the pituitary is widely used in pituitary surgery. Even though there are some landmarks for internal carotid artery (ICA) on the wall of the check details sphenoid sinus, it is not rare to get the artery injured during

surgery. We found that the most important landmark, carotid prominence, matched with ICA in merely 37.5% of subjects. In order to find a simple method to locate the artery, we made an anatomical measurement of the ICA and placed the results in a coordinate system. The sphenoid sinus opening is both the center of the endoscope entry in the anterior sinus wall and the origin of the coordinate system containing 3 orthogonal axes: x, y, and z. The x axis follows the body of the endoscope(out of the sphenoid sinus) parallel to the sagittal plane while z is perpendicular to the sagittal plane. Most of the measurements were obtained in the initial operative plane, which is perpendicular to the sagittal plane and contains the sinus opening and the midpoint of the pituitary fossa. We calculated the coordinates of the midpoint of the pituitary fossa and 4 ICA-related points. The depth of an ICA and the distance between 2 ICAs are also helpful in locating ICA.

The analysis of these data unambiguously revealed the presence of

The analysis of these data unambiguously revealed the presence of an additional and distinct “”He-assisted”" excitation mechanism in the He plasma, which was further suggested to be related to the He metastable excited state. The quenching effect was

therefore explained as a consequence of energy depletion of the He metastable excited state triggered by the Penning ionization process induced by the presence of nitrogen. This also explains the relatively insensitive response of the Zr and Ca emission intensity profiles to nitrogen addition despite GDC-0973 the increased plasma electron density resulting from the ionization process. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3058670]“
“Background: Geographical differences in disease prevalence and mortality have been described in the general population and in chronic kidney disease patients in Europe. In this secondary analysis of the Membrane Permeability Outcome (MPO) study, we addressed differences in patient and treatment patterns, and whether these affect patient outcomes.

Methods: Participating countries were grouped according to geographical location; thus study centers in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain were allocated to southern Europe (n=499), and those in all other countries (Belgium, Germany, Poland and Sweden) to northern Europe (n=148). Descriptive analysis of patient and treatment patterns at

study start, as well as survival analysis, was performed.

Results: In patients from the northern European countries, a higher prevalence of diabetes

mellitus and of cardiovascular disease was observed than in those from southern Europe (diabetes 35.1% vs. 21.0%, p=0.0007; cardiovascular disease 40.5% vs. 22.8%, p<0.0001). In northern Europe, 23% of patients started hemodialysis with a catheter for vascular access, while in southern check details European centers, only 13% did so (p=0.0042). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a lower probability for both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in southern Europe (log-rank test p<0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, a higher mortality risk was estimated for the northern European patients after adjustment for age, sex, membrane permeability, comorbidity index and vascular access (hazard ratio = 1.831; 95% confidence interval, 1.282-2.615; p=0.0009).

Conclusions: Our study patients from northern Europe showed a higher risk profile than those from southern Europe. However, only some of the factors can be modified in attempts to lower the mortality risk in this geographical area.”

To investigate the effect of altitude on perioperative opioid requirements in otherwise healthy children.


To investigate whether children living and having surgery at high altitude received different doses of fentanyl than those living and having surgery at sea level.