At juxta-threshold intensities, RT measurements suggest that
2000 Hz stimulates A beta-fibers, 250 Hz A beta- or A partial derivative-fibers, 5 Hz A beta-, A partial derivative- or C-fibers. The fiber type, which was initially stimulated by the lower frequencies, depended on inter-individual differences. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The spatial and temporal dynamics of rotifers in relation to the physico-chemical parameters in Fish-Culture Research Station (Southern Tunisia) were studied monthly from February 2005 to January 2006. Thirteen rotifer species were GSK621 in vitro found: Brachionus urceolaris, Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus sp., Lecane stichaea, Lecane rhytida. Lecane sp., Hexarthra mira, Rotaria tardigrada, Conochiloides natans, Trichocerra marina, Keratella quadrata, Keratella cochlearis and Notommata codonella. The most dominant rotifer was
B. urceolaris (76% of total abundance). Rotifer density and water temperature were negatively correlated (r = -0.94, n = 12, p = 0.001). The highest click here abundance of rotifers was found in basin 4 (1.5 x 10(5) ind m(-3), in June 2005). (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Introduction. – The cutaneous silent period (CSP) is an interruption of etectromyographic activity produced by a painful stimulation delivered in homotopic cutaneous territory. It may be useful in evaluating small afferent fibers. However, standardized parameters of stimulation stilt need to be carefully defined before using this technique in routine clinical application. In this Tobramycin study, we investigated the effects of stimulus intensity and duration on the CSP.
Methods. – Twenty healthy adults were included. The digital cutaneous nerve of the right index finger was stimulated and the CSP was measured from the right thenar muscle. The voluntary contraction of thenar muscle was maintained at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction, and the digital cutaneous nerve
was stimulated using 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ms durations and, for each stimulus duration, intensities increasing from 30 to 80 mA in 10 mA steps.
Results. – CSP duration first increased with increasing stimulus intensity and duration and then reached a plateau. Maximal CSP duration ranged from 34.7 to 71.0 ms (mean +/- S.D.: 51.2 +/- 9.5 ms). CSP duration was not significantly different for intensities varying between 40 and 80 mA and for stimulus durations varying between 0.2 and 1.0 ms.
Conclusion. – This study demonstrates a high inter-individual variability of maximal CSP duration, and that CSP duration first increased with stimulus intensity and duration and then reached a plateau. We suggest to use a minimal stimulus intensity of 40 mA, and a minimal stimulus duration of 0.2 ms in order to elicit maximal CSP duration. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.