In the catamenial epilepsy model, there is a marked reduction in

In the catamenial epilepsy model, there is a marked reduction in the antiseizure potency of anticonvulsant drugs, including benzodiazepines and valproate, but an increase in the anticonvulsant potency and protective index of

neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and the neurosteroid analog ganaxolone. The enhanced seizure susceptibility and benzodiazepine-resistance subsequent to neurosteroid withdrawal may be related to reduced expression and altered kinetics of synaptic GABA(A) receptors and increased expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits (such as alpha 4) that confer benzodiazepine Sotrastaurin insensitivity. The enhanced potency of neurosteroids may be due to a relative increase after neurosteroid withdrawal in the expression of neurosteroid-sensitive delta-subunit-containing perisynaptic or extrasynaptic PF-01367338 in vitro GABA(A) receptors. Positive allosteric modulatory neurosteroids and synthetic analogs such as ganaxolone may be administered

to prevent catamenial seizure exacerbations, in what we call neurosteroid replacement therapy.”
“The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet used to treat drug-resistant seizures, especially in children. A number of possible mechanisms of action have been proposed to explain the anticonvulsant effects of the diet. Four of these hypothetical mechanisms are discussed in the present article: the pH hypothesis, the metabolic hypotheses, the amino acid hypothesis, and the ketone hypothesis.”
“The use of dietary treatments for epilepsy (ketogenic, modified Atkins, and low glycemic index diets) has been in continuous use since 1921. These treatments have been well studied in the short term, with approximately half of

children having at least a 50% reduction in seizures after 6 months. Approximately one third will attain >90% reduction in their seizures. Animal studies confirm these findings, with broad evidence demonstrating acute anticonvulsant effects of the diet. Furthermore, the diet appears to maintain its efficacy in humans when provided continuously for several years. Interestingly, benefits may be seen long term even when CYTH4 the diet is discontinued after only a few months of use, suggesting neuroprotective effects. This potential antiepileptogenic activity has been recently demonstrated in some animal studies as well. This review discusses the animal and human evidence for both short- and long-term benefits of dietary therapies.”
“Botanicals and herbs have a centuries-old tradition of use by persons with epilepsy, in many cultures around the world. At present, herbal therapies are tried by patients in developing as well as developed countries for control of seizures or adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or for general health maintenance, usually without the knowledge of physicians who prescribe their AEDs.

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