In the present study, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to investigate the causal involvement of frontal and parietal areas in different stages of the PM process (in particular, target checking and intention retrieval), and to determine the specific contribution of these regions to PM performance.
Our results demonstrate that repetitive TMS (rTMS) interferes with prospective memory performance when applied at 150-350 ms to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and at 400-600 ms when applied to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC).
The present study provides clear evidence that the right DLPFC plays
a crucial role in early components of the PM process (target checking), while the left PPC seems to be mainly involved in later processes, such as the retrieval BV-6 manufacturer of the intended action. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: This study evaluated early and long-term results of endovascular treatment of iliac artery occlusions and compared these outcomes with those in patients treated for stenotic lesions.
Methods: During a 10-year period ending in January 2010, 223 endovascular
procedures to treat aortoiliac occlusive disease (PAD) were performed. All patients were prospectively enrolled in a dedicated database. The intervention was performed for iliac occlusion in 109 patients (group 1) and for iliac stenosis in 114 (group 2). Early results were analyzed and compared by eFT-508 chi(2) and Fisher exact tests. Follow-up consisted of clinical examination and duplex scanning at discharge, <= 3 months, at 6 and 12 months, and yearly thereafter. Follow-up results were analyzed with
Kaplan-Meier curves and compared with the log-rank test.
Results: The two groups had similar risk factors for atherosclerosis and comorbidities. Critical limb ischemia was more common in group 1 (20.5%) Fluocinolone acetonide than in group 2 (8.5%; P = .01). Intraoperative technical details were similar, except for a higher percentage of brachial and contralateral femoral access and more frequent use of nitinol stents in group 1. Two immediate technical failures occurred, one in both groups, requiring immediate conversion to surgical bypass. Four intraoperative iliac ruptures occurred, two in each group; all were successfully treated with covered stents. An additional 10 immediate complications occurred (8 in group 1; 2 in group 2), one of which required conversion to open surgical bypass. The cumulative rate of perioperative complications was 9% in group 1 and 3.5% in group 2 (P = .08). Primary patency at 30 days was 97.3% and 98.7%, respectively. Mean duration of follow-up was 28.4 months; 203 patients (91%) had a regular postoperative follow-up visit. At 60 months, primary patency in group 1 vs group 2 was 82.4% vs 77.7% (P = .9), assisted primary patency was 90.6% vs 85.5% (P = .4), and estimated secondary patency was 93.1% vs 92.8% (P = .