In the present system, the reduced cofactor (NADH) was regenerated by GLD from the oxidized cofactor (NAD(+)) using glycerol as a sacrificial cosubstrate. The reducing equivalents were subsequently transferred to NADP(+) by STH as a cycling catalyst. The resultant regenerated NADPH was used for the substrate oxidation catalyzed by cytochrome P450BM3. The initial rate of the P450BM3-catalyzed reaction linked by the two-step cofactor regeneration showed a slight
increase (approximately twice) when increasing BTSA1 the GLD units 10-fold under initial reaction conditions. In contrast, a 10-fold increase in STH units resulted in about a 9-fold increase in the initial reaction rate, implying that transhydrogenation catalyzed by STH was the rate-determining step. In the system lacking the two-step cofactor regeneration, 34% conversion of 50 mu M of a model substrate (p-nitrophenoxydecanoic acid) Apoptosis Compound Library was attained using 50 mu M NADPH. In contrast, with the two-step cofactor regeneration, the same amount of substrate was completely converted using 5 mu M of oxidized cofactors (NAD(+) and NADP(+)) within 1 h. Furthermore, a 10-fold dilution of the oxidized cofactors still led to approximately 20% conversion in
1 h. These results indicate the potential of the combination of GLD and STH for use in redox cofactor recycling with catalytic quantities of NAD(+) and NADP(+). (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 25: 1372-1378, 2009″
“Anomalous coronary arteries with an inter-arterial course are associated with sudden cardiac death. We reported a study comparing the accuracy of fluoroscopic coronary angiography (FCA) with that of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography in determining the proximal course www.selleckchem.com/products/sch-900776.html of anomalous coronary arteries.\n\nTwelve patients with thirteen anomalous coronary arteries had both FCA and MSCT coronary angiography were included in this study. Twelve cardiologists individually reviewed FCAs of anomalous coronary arteries and determined the
proximal course of anomalous coronary arteries as retro-aortic, inter-arterial or ante-pulmonary. Their diagnoses were compared with MSCT coronary angiography which was regarded as the reference standard in this study. On MSCT coronary angiography, there were six anomalous left circumflex arteries with a retro-aortic course, five anomalous right coronary arteries and one anomalous left anterior descending artery with inter-arterial courses, and a single anomalous left main artery with an ante-pulmonary course. The percentage of correct diagnosis made by 12 cardiologists based on FCA findings was 93/156 or 60%. None of the cardiologists was correct in determining the proximal course of all anomalous coronary arteries. The median number of anomalous coronary arteries with their proximal courses correctly identified by the cardiologists was 7.5 (range 3-12).