It seems

It seems check details that the intensity of combat in Otton frogs is finely balanced so as not to result in critical or mortal injuries, yet it remains aggressive enough to establish a clear victor. Use as a weapon in male–male combat was not the only role of the pseudothumbs in Otton frogs; they were used in amplexus as well. Male Otton frogs cling to the sides of the female by jabbing their pseudothumbs into her. Amplexus in the Otton frog occurred with one male and one female in an oviposition nest, and dense mating aggregation never occurred. In 2 out of 16 oviposition events, the disturbed male was observed to instantly

release the female when an intruder male appeared, rather than hanging on. Pseudothumb use by males seems to play a supportive role in fastening to the females during amplexus and oviposition, but it is not used for clinging to the female while attacking an intruder. In derived frog families, males usually

clasp the female behind the front legs (Wells, 2007), and nuptial pads are clasped against the female’s belly (Peters & Aulner, 2000) for stronger coupling. Otton frogs do have nuptial pads, but they use their pseudothumb and spines in amplexus as well. The observed finger use of Otton frogs in amplexus caused injury to females, and thus does not seem very beneficial to females. Despite the disadvantage, however, such finger use in Otton frogs may have evolved because of the larger body size of males relative to females. If males are larger than females, a male has to hang Navitoclax cost forward over a female during oviposition in order to place his cloaca at the upper position to that of the female so that the sperm can reach the ova when they are released from the female. Jabbing pseudothumbs into the side of the female might serve as an anchor

point from which to hang forward. Another use of pseudothumbs may be for 上海皓元 obtaining food or protection from predators. If the pseudothumbs of Otton frogs serve these functions, the observed sexual dimorphism suggests that males use their pseudothumbs more often or more intensely than females while hunting for food or during anti-predator behaviors. However, the habitat range, food items and active period, all of which can lead to such differences, appeared to be the same between the sexes. This was confirmed by field observations. The male Otton frogs did not use their pseudothumbs for predation, and a reported observation of predation behavior in a female also did not mention the use of pseudothumbs (Iwai, 2010). Whether Otton frogs use their pseudothumbs against predators could not be confirmed because no observation of an Otton frog under predation was made during more than 70 nights of surveying. The only reported predator is the large snake Protobothrops flavoviridis, which preys on the Otton frog at a rate as low as 0.2% (Mishima, 1966).

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