This review will discuss the current understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy of adenovirus selleck chemicals infection in transplant recipients.
Advances in the field include the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of adenoviral infection, a better understanding of the epidemiology, immune response and potential new therapies, including preemptive
and adoptive immunotherapy strategies. Adenoviral infections appear to be common, especially in pediatric solid organ transplan. Generally well tolerated, some high-risk patients may develop disseminated disease causing graft failure, which may lead to retransplant and/or death, Antiviral therapy and immunotherapy may play a role in these patients, although prospective controlled data are not available at this time.
Although new tools and a better
understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors and therapies for adenovirus are beginning to see more materialize, prospective, controlled trials, using careful definitions, and standardized methodologies need to be performed to more fully clarify these issues in solid organ transplant recipients.”
“The accurate diagnosis of lymph node (LN) metastasis is important for making treatment decisions for gastric cancer patients. This multicenter study evaluated the clinical performance of the one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay (Sysmex Corp.), an automated system that detects cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA, in detecting LN metastases in gastric cancer patients.
LNs retrieved from patients who had undergone gastric cancer surgery at one of the four Japanese hospitals involved in this study were divided into blocks at 2-mm intervals. Alternate blocks were examined with the OSNA assay and the remaining blocks were assessed histologically.
A total of 394 LNs from 61 patients were examined. The concordance rate between the OSNA assay and the histological C59 in vitro examination was 0.942 (95 % CI, 0.914-0.963). Sensitivity and specificity of the OSNA assay compared
to the histological examination were 0.833 (95 % CI, 0.707-0.921) and 0.959 (95 % CI, 0.932-0.977), respectively. Discordant results were observed in 23 LNs (5.8 %), and these were mainly the result of tissue allocation bias and/or low CK19 protein expression.
The OSNA assay can detect lymph node metastases in gastric cancer patients as accurately as the histological examination of blocks sectioned at 2-mm intervals. The OSNA assay is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of LN metastasis in gastric cancer patients.”
“Humans can detect and discriminate between fine variations of surface roughness using active touch. It is hitherto believed that roughness perception is mediated mostly by cutaneous and subcutaneous afferents located in the fingertips.