To demonstrate the presence of excitotoxicity in A beta-induced s

To demonstrate the presence of excitotoxicity in A beta-induced septal damage, we compared rats injected with A beta(1-40)

into the MS/DB with animals treated with memantine prior, during and after A beta(1-40) injections. Controls were injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). MS/DB cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons were immunochemically identified. The number of MS/DB neurons was estimated using stereology. Our results find more show that memantine blocks A beta(1-40)-induced septal damage and suggest that excitotoxicity plays a role in basal forebrain neurodegeneration. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Noxious stimuli can usually cause the aversive sensations, pain and itch. The initial integration of such noxious information occurs in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord (SDH), which is very important for understanding pain sensation and developing effective analgesic strategies. The circuits formed by pools of neurons and terminals within SDH are accepted as the platform for such complicated integrations and are highly plastic under conditions of inflammatory or neuropathic pain. Recent literature offers a complicated, yet versatile view of SDH intrinsic circuits

with both inhibitory and excitatory components. However, our knowledge about the adaptative regulation of SDH local circuits is still far from sufficient due to the incomplete understanding of their organization as they are intermingled with primary afferent fibers (PAFs), poorly understood or identified SDH neurons, somehow contradictory data for descending control systems. A more positive view emphasizes abundant modern data on SDH neuron morphology and physiology riding on the back of significant technological advancements used in neuroscience. Reviewing the current literature on this topic thus produced an integrated understanding of SDH neurons and the SDH local circuits involved in noxious

MK-1775 cost transmission and modulation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The dose-dependent effect of isoflurane on regional CBF of cortical and subcortical structures in anesthetized macaque monkeys was investigated with the Continuous ASL MRI technique. High concentration of isoflurane resulted in global CBF increase and blood pressure decrease. Evident CBF change was observed in the subcortical structures. Specifically, CBF in thalamus and cerebellum was increased about 39% and 55% when isoflurane concentration was changed from 0.75% to 1.5%, respectively. Also, those regional CBF changes correlated linearly with isoflurane inspiratory concentrations, indicating impaired CBF autoregulation in these structures. In contrast, no obvious CBF changes were observed in anterior cingulated cortex, motor cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and caudate.

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