Various HNF1β+/HNF4α+ cell types showed phenotypic and analyte ex

Various HNF1β+/HNF4α+ cell types showed phenotypic and analyte expression characteristics SB525334 ic50 intermediate between otherwise typical BEC lining portal bile ducts and hepatocytes (Fig. 4C). For example,

HNF1βhigh/HNF4αlow BEC-type cells showed lower CK19 expression than mature BECs, as expected. CK19-/HNF1βweak/HNF4αstrong hepatocyte-type cells expressed significantly higher HNF1β than mature hepatocytes and significantly higher HNF4α expression than mature BEC (Fig. 4C). Cells most strongly positive for both HNF1β+ and HNF4α+ often showed hepatocyte features with an oval nucleus, but lacked CK19 staining and were close to CH cells or terminal bile ducts, but a direct connection could not always be confirmed in thick sections (Fig. 4D). A graphic reconstruction summarizing our results is shown in Fig. 5. HNF1β28, 29 and HNF4α (reviewed27) are responsible for development and maintenance of mature BEC and hepatocyte phenotypes, respectively. In agreement with previous single marker studies, HNF1β can be expressed by periportal hepatocytes28, 29 and HNF4α can be expressed by occasional BEC.30 A novel workflow with multiplex labeling, however, enabled us to show that the quantitatively

dominant transcription most strongly influenced the routine histopathologic appearance of the cells. Indeed, multiplex labeling, WSI creation, and automated image analysis enabled us to identify and characterize diverse epithelial populations that show transitional cytometric characteristics high throughput screening and analyte expression, including coexpression of HNF1β and HNF4α: (1) CK19+/HNF1βhigh/HNF4αlow BEC-type cells; (2) CK19weak/HNF1βhigh/HNF4αlow BEC/CH-type cells; (3) CK19-/HNF1βweak/HNF4αstrong hepatocyte-type

cells with an oval nucleus; and (4) CK19-/HNF1βweak/HNF4αstrong hepatocyte-type cells with a large round nucleus (identical to mature hepatocytes). This extensive, but difficult to visualize with conventional histology, population of cells with phenotypic and biomarker (including transcription 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 factor) expressions of a hybrid nature between hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells are positioned over a relatively broad area from small portal-based bile ducts to otherwise typical periportal hepatocytes. Previous studies in rodents show that progenitor cells (i.e., “oval” cells) arise from BEC to provide hepatocytes when regeneration of the liver needs to occur under conditions in which hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited.31 Similar conclusions have been reached in cirrhotic human liver tissue samples where hepatocytes are thought to be derived by terminal bile ducts/CH harboring putative progenitor cells.32-34 Conversely, periportal hepatocytes can give rise to BEC when BECs are incapable of regenerating.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>