7% of patients who had no

7% of patients who had no response to cetuximab with irinotecan, responded to single-agent panitumumab (61). Wadlow et al. published a phase II trial of 20 patients treated with panitumumab after progression on cetuximab, where no responses were observed, although 45% patients

had stable disease with a median PFS of 1.7 months and a median OS of 5.2 months (62). Our own institutional review revealed that in patients with Belnacasan (VX-765) clinical benefit (ORR or stable disease) on cetuximab and eventual progression, 71% had Rucaparib structure subsequent clinical benefit with panitumumab therapy (55). At this time, given the limited amount of data and the lack of randomized study results, any combination of strategies for EGFR beyond Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical progression is not recommended and this is consistent with the NCCN guidelines (19). EGFR inhibitor toxicities—a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical friend or a foe? Toxicities with both EGFR inhibitors include skin rash, nail changes, fatigue, mucositis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as infusion reactions which tend to occur at a higher rate with the chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody cetuximab

[up to 22% in areas such as North Carolina and Tennessee (63) vs. <1% with panitumumab (30)]. Toxicities seen in clinical trials Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical when given with FOLFIRI are summarized in Table 2. Table 2 Toxicities in the CRYSTAL (25) and 20050181 trial (30) with or without an EGFR inhibitor The development of a rash is particularly common and usually occurs during the first 4 weeks of therapy. The mechanisms have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical been reviewed previously (64). A pooled review of toxicities in 920 patients across 10 clinical trials treated with single-agent panitumumab are presented in Table 3. Treatment-related adverse events were seen in 94% of patients with 20% experiencing a grade 3 event. Overall, 12% discontinued the drug due to toxicity. Only 4 (0.3%) patients had an infusion reaction (65). Table 3 Toxicities in a combination of trials (920

patients) with single agent panitumumab (65) The STEPP Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Skin Toxicity Evaluation Protocol with Panitumumab) trial evaluated approaches to prevent skin toxicities in a randomized phase II trial where patients received either prophylactic or reactive skin treatment in the two arms, FOLFIRI with panitumumab (6 mg/kg every 2 weeks) vs. irinotecan with panitumumab (9 mg/kg every 3 weeks). The prophylactic skin treatment consisted of using a skin Brefeldin_A moisturizer, sunscreen, 1% hydrocortisone cream and doxycycline twice daily. The grade ≥2 skin toxicities were reduced by more than 50% in the prophylactic group compared to the reactive treatment group (29% vs. 62%) (64). Electrolyte disturbances, especially low magnesium and/or low calcium, believed to be due to EGFR blockade in the kidney, can occur and can be seen for up to 8 weeks after discontinuing treatment. Monitoring is therefore required and recommended for up to 8 weeks after therapy and repletion of electrolytes may be needed (17,21).

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