The FDA maintains a list of drugs with labeling requirements tha

The FDA maintains a list of drugs with labeling requirements that under some circumstances require pharmacoselleck chemicals genomic testing of subpopulations for polymorphisms before the drug is prescribed.9,10 Analysis of pharmacogenomic

data has become a substantial undertaking by the FDA. Among these steps in developing the translational science for the future, the FDA, together with the pharmaceutical industry and academic investigators, has established a voluntary Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical data submission process to enable better understanding of the interaction of developmental therapies with genes and their clinical manifestations.11 Arguably, the largest number of patients with potential clinical application of a pharmacogenetics test under consideration in medical practice today are those who will be prescribed the anticoagulant warfarin. Several polymorphisms Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical lead to the abnormal metabolism of the drug, which has a narrow therapuetic index fraught with medical complications. Research continues

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on the clinical sellectchem importance of routine testing of the Cytochrome P450 2C9 locus, which is involved in warfarin metabolism, and variants in Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1). Several commonly used drugs for neurologic conditions have FDA labeling for pharmacogenomic implications. Carbamazepine-related Stevens Johnson syndrome has been linked to polymorphisms in the HLA B haplotype. Individuals carrying Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical one or two *1502 alleles are advised to avoid carbamazepine. Labeling for pharmacogenetic assay consideration is also present for fluoxetine and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

(SSRIs) metabolized by Cytochrome P450 2D6. Abnormal clinical response mayoccur due to aberrant drug metabolism, and genetic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical testing may yield useful information to aid in dosing parameters.12 A commercially available microarray has been developed and FDA approved for use to assist in determining Cytochrome P450 polymorphisms, and other clinical laboratory tests are used in a variety of settings for consideration in drug dosing.13 Nonpolymorphic genetic Dacomitinib modifications are increasingly being applied to understand gene-environment interactions in diseases and clinical conditions. Further expansion of the capabilities of microarray technology has enabled genomic analysis at additional levels by measuring DNA methylation and histone modification.14 In addition, analysis of copy number is providing insight about genomic variation beyond nucleotide polymorphism, showing significance in the etiology of cancer, atherosclerotic heart disease, and complex neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia.

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