7,8 The use of such simple measures by long-term travelers is suboptimal at best.9 Adherence to chemoprophylaxis is poor among long-term travelers, mainly due to the side effects of the drugs, fear of adverse consequences of long-term use, and conflicting advice on long-term prophylaxis.10–14 Bcl-2 inhibitor Despite the increased incidence of malaria in long-term travelers, research about risk factors, chemoprophylaxis, and spatial distribution of malaria in this
population is scarce. The vast majority of studies about risk factors for contracting malaria and about the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis, eg, have been performed in travelers staying less than 1 month in malaria-endemic areas. Spatial distribution of malaria cases in long-term residents has not been studied at all. With a few notable exceptions, malaria prevention among healthcare
workers has not been thoroughly investigated.15–17 Features unique to this population include relatively well-informed individuals, daily exposure to the consequences of severe malaria, and rapid access to medical care. A previous study demonstrated low compliance with the recommended chemoprophylaxis in UK general practitioners visiting South Asia, but such study has not been performed in sub-Saharan Africa Z-VAD-FMK mw where the risk of acquiring malaria is much higher. Nonimmune healthcare workers in La-Paz Hospital in Bata, in sub-Saharan Equatorial Guinea, provide a unique opportunity for researching malaria prevention and spatial distribution of malaria cases among long-term residents. All foreign staff members were living within the hospital
compound in five different apartment buildings. As a stream which runs just outside the hospital perimeter was the presumed mosquito breeding site, its distance from all apartment buildings was measured (Figure 1). Spatial variations of malaria incidence could thus Liothyronine Sodium be described. In addition, we assessed epidemiological risk factors for acquiring malaria, and compliance of hospital staff members with the recommended personal protective measures and chemoprophylaxis. A cohort study of the risk factors for acquiring malaria was conducted among healthcare personnel residing within the compound of La-Paz Hospital between September 2007 and December 2008. A structured questionnaire was used to assess demographic and epidemiological data. Self-reported compliance with the recommended chemoprophylaxis and personal protective measures was determined. The different chemoprophylaxis regimens that were considered adequate included either mefloquine, doxacycline, or malarone (atovaquone–proguanil). All cases of malaria were diagnosed by a combination of clinical symptoms and at least one confirmatory test performed within the hospital (microscopy, a rapid diagnostic test, or both).