Pooling of samples was carried out to provide sufficient sample v

Pooling of samples was carried out to provide sufficient sample volume for FU determinations. Pooled specimens were analyzed for both total LPV concentration and the FU. Total LPV concentrations for pooled specimens were quantified within the Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory at the University of California, San Diego using a validated reverse-phase multiplex high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method as previously described [4,5]. Briefly, the method had a lower limit of quantitation (LOQ) adequate for quantitating drug in all collected samples (0.091 μg/mL) and had interassay coefficients of variation (CV) of <11% for the LOQ and all controls. The PB method employed ultrafiltration

(filter units were Micron YM-10 (10 000 MWCO from AMICON, Billercia, MA, USA) and radiolabelled drug (3H) purified and supplied by Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA (specific Akt inhibitor activity 8.06 Ci/mmol, >99% purity). Pooled plasma samples were centrifuged to remove particulate material. Radiolabel was added to 1 mL of cleared plasma to give an initial concentration of approximately 30 ng/mL. The spiked plasma aliquots were equilibrated for 30 min at 37 °C before ultrafiltration. Spiked plasma (300 μL) was placed into the sample reservoir of the Micron centrifugal filter device and centrifuged for 1 h, at 22 °C, in a fixed head micro centrifuge at high speed,

ADP ribosylation factor around 12 000 × g. Filters were processed in duplicate for each sample. Duplicate aliquots (100 μL) of each spiked plasma and ultrafiltrate Osimertinib research buy sample (200 μL) were radioassayed directly in Cytoscint in a liquid scintillation counter. Since protein is necessary for appropriate filter functioning,

we used an indirect method to assess binding to the filter. We attempted to block the filter units with PEG and tested plasma with 3H LPV. The results showed very low nonspecific binding. This is consistent with Abbott Laboratories’ findings of negligible nonspecific binding (T. Reisch, Metabolic Disease Research, Abbott Laboratories, personal communication). Assay reproducibility was assessed prior to the start of the patient experiments. Six filters were processed with a high LPV spike (approximately 14 500 ng/mL) and five filters were processed using blank (no LPV) plasma. The %CV for the filtrate DPM (disintegrations per minute) was <5%. The experiment was repeated in the middle of the testing period and the %CV for filtrate (five filters) DPM was also <5%. Additionally the high control and blank plasma were processed in duplicate with each batch of subject samples. The mean %bound showed %CV of <0.1 (n=8 testing dates). FU was calculated according to the following formulas: AAG was determined using an FDA approved kit [Human AAG RID (Radial Immunodiffusion) Kit, The Binding Site Inc., San Diego, USA).

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