CB1 and CB2 receptor expression was increased in cirrhotic animals. Interestingly, pharmacological CB1 receptor antagonism was associated with a further induction EPZ-6438 of the CB2 receptor expression. Regression of fibrosis can be achieved by pharmacological blockade of the CB1 receptor even when started in an advanced stage of the disease. This effect is associated with the suppression of pro-fibrogenic and inflammatory mediators and may have been indirectly favoured by the induction of CB2 receptor expression. Laboratory Investigation (2012) 92, 384-395; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2011.191; published online 19 December 2011″
“Inhibitor of kappa B kinase (vertical bar
kappa K) has historically been studied in the context of immune response and inflammation, but recent evidence demonstrates that vertical bar kappa K activity is necessary and sufficient for regulation of neuronal function. Chronic social SB202190 purchase defeat stress of mice increases vertical bar kappa K activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and this increase is strongly correlated to depression-like behaviors. Inhibition of vertical bar kappa K signaling results in a reversal of chronic social defeat stress-induced social avoidance behavior. Here, we more completely define the role of vertical bar kappa K in anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Mice underwent stereotaxic
microinjection of a herpes simplex virus expressing either green fluorescent protein, a constitutively active form of vertical bar kappa K (vertical bar kappa Kca), or a dominant negative form of vertical bar kappa K into the NAc. Of all three experimental groups, only mice
expressing vertical bar kappa Kca show a behavioral phenotype. Expression of vertical bar kappa Kca results in a decrease in the time spent in the non-periphery zones of an open field arena and increased time spent immobile during a forced swim test. I BET 762 No baseline differences in sucrose preference were observed, but following the acute swim stress we noted a marked reduction in sucrose preference. To determine whether vertical bar kappa K activity alters responses to other acute stressors, we examined behavior and spine morphology in mice undergoing an acute social defeat stress. We found that vertical bar kappa Kca enhanced social avoidance behavior and promoted thin spine formation. These data show that vertical bar kappa Kca in NAc is a critical regulator of both depressive- and anxiety-like states and may do so by promoting the formation of immature excitatory synapses. Neuropsychopharmacology (2012) 37, 2615-2623; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.121; published online 11 July 2012″
“Background. Mental capacity is now a core part of UK mental health law and clinicians will increasingly be expected to assess it. Because it is a legal concept there is a need to clarify associations with variables that clinicians are more familiar with, especially insight.