In recent years, the consistent and rather frequent detection (in

In recent years, the consistent and rather frequent detection (in approximately 1% of the human Selleck AZD1480 population) of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) viral DNA integrated into human chromosomes has spurred

renewed interest in our understanding of how these viruses infect, replicate, and propagate themselves. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on chromosomal integration by herpesviruses and present the current state of knowledge on integration by HHV-6 with the possible clinical implications associated with viral integration.”
“Shadoo is a glycoprotein expressed in the adult brain that is an interacting protein of prion protein: however, its function remains to be determined. To elucidate its role in prion pathogenesis, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing wild-type (wt) Shadoo driven by the murine PrP promoter. Expression of the murine Sprn transgene significantly increased brain Shadoo protein levels in all three mouse lines generated. Following infection with mouse-adapted scrapie strain 22L, all transgenic mice tested exhibited characteristics

of scrapie disease. Importantly, there was no correlation between Selleckchem Sonidegib the expression level or incubation time of Shadoo with disease phenotype. We therefore conclude that Shadoo has little or no influence on the outcome of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in transgenic mice. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Autophagy can play an important part in protecting host cells during virus infection, and several viruses have developed strategies by which to evade or even exploit this homeostatic pathway. Tissue culture studies have shown that poliovirus, an enterovirus, modulates autophagy. Herein, we report on in vivo studies that evaluate the effects on autophagy ACY-738 nmr of coxsackievirus

B3 (CVB3). We show that in pancreatic acinar cells, CVB3 induces the formation of abundant small autophagy-like vesicles and permits amphisome formation. However, the virus markedly, albeit incompletely, limits the fusion of autophagosomes (and/or amphisomes) with lysosomes, and, perhaps as a result, very large autophagy-related structures are formed within infected cells; we term these structures megaphagosomes. Ultrastructural analyses confirmed that double-membraned autophagy-like vesicles were present in infected pancreatic tissue and that the megaphagosomes were related to the autophagy pathway; they also revealed a highly organized lattice, the individual components of which are of a size consistent with CVB RNA polymerase; we suggest that this may represent a coxsackievirus replication complex. Thus, these in vivo studies demonstrate that CVB3 infection dramatically modifies autophagy in infected pancreatic acinar cells.

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