De Boer et al [28] demonstrated in vivo genetic exchange between

De Boer et al. [28] demonstrated in vivo genetic exchange Adriamycin in vivo between C. jejuni strains coinfecting chickens. Phase variation via slip-strand mutagenesis in homopolymeric tracts has been demonstrated in a motility-related gene [29], a capsular synthesis gene [18], and a lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) synthesis gene [17]. In the latter case, phase variation results in switching the genes encoding the LOS structure between forms mimicking GM1 or GM2 gangliosides found in neural tissue; it is thought that the reaction with neural tissue of autoimmune antibodies directed against LOS molecules that mimic neural gangliosides

underlies the development of Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Prendergast et al. demonstrated in vivo phase variation in the LOS genes in experimentally AZD3965 infected human volunteers [30]. Evolutionary changes in pathogenicity of pathogens (i. e., increase or decrease in virulence) are thought to be the result of trade-offs between host mortality and probability of transmission to a new host, although immunopathology resulting from damage caused by the immune response may modulate the selective process [31–33]. Both host and pathogen genetic factors may be important

in the evolutionary process [34]. Serial passage experiments that explore virulence evolution have usually resulted in increased pathogen-induced damage to the host [35, 36]. A few serial passage experiments have been conducted with C. jejuni. Fernández et al. [37] showed that serial intraperitoneal passage in mice of ten click here C. jejuni strains that could not invade HEp2 cells in culture restored and then enhanced this ability, but pathogenicity of the passaged strains in intestinal infections of mice was not determined. Chickens are commensally colonized by C. jejuni and

are an important reservoir for human infection. Ringoir and Korolik [38] showed that serial passage of four C. jejuni strains in chickens reduced the minimum infectious dose required for colonization. Jones et al. [39] showed for that passage of a poorly motile variant of C. jejuni 11168 in chickens increased the ability of this strain to colonize and persist in chickens; this change was accompanied by an increase in motility. Development of a murine model of C. jejuni infection in which C57BL/6 IL-10+/+ mice are colonized by C. jejuni 11168 while C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice are both colonized and experience enteritis allowed us to explore the relationship between genetic variation in C. jejuni and disease expression in a model in which host genetic factors are close to identical and host environmental factors can be either standardized or varied in a controlled way [40]. Our first hypothesis was that C. jejuni strains from humans, chickens, and cattle vary in their ability to colonize and cause enteritis in C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice. Our second hypothesis was that serial passage of C.

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