Dural sac area of less than 75 mm(2) in early postoperative MRI w

Dural sac area of less than 75 mm(2) in early postoperative MRI was found to be the threshold for clinical significance.”
“OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings). In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli see more and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated

and compared.

METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and

18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was VX-770 cell line determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively.

RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05) and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03) compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05). The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number Pexidartinib of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.”
“Background: This article analyzes the effectiveness of designated trauma centers (DTCs) in Florida concerning reduction in the mortality risk of severely injured elderly trauma victims.

Methods: Inpatient hospital data collected

by the Agency for Health Care Administration were used to identify elderly trauma patients. An instrumental variables method was used to adjust for prehospital selection bias in addition to the influence of age, gender, race, risk of mortality, comorbidities, and type of injury. The model was estimated using a bivariate probit full information maximum likelihood model to determine the impact of triage to a trauma center as opposed to a nontrauma hospital.

Results: After adjusting for confounding influences, treatment at a DTC was associated with a statistically significant reduction of 0.072, 0.040, and 0.036 in the probability of mortality for patients in the age groups 65 years to 74 years, 75 years to 84 years, and >= 85 years, respectively.

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