Enzymes such as trypsin-like serine proteases, which may cleave a

Enzymes such as trypsin-like serine proteases, which may cleave at the many Arg residues present in the sequence of Bac7(1-35), might have this effect. However, these results clearly indicate that the peptide should be quite stable in blood and its degradation occurs only after several hours, suggesting that the decreased activity of Bac7(1-35) Veliparib nmr is only in part due to its degradation. In vivo toxicity As a first step to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Bac7(1-35), its in vivo toxicity was determined in Balb/c and CBA/Ca mice after Ro 61-8048 research buy injection via i.p. of increasing single peptide doses. No

apparent toxic effect was observed when the peptide was administered i.p. up to 75 mg/kg, but the mice receiving the highest peptide dose (150 mg/kg) died 3 days post injection. This result confirms that Bac7(1-35) is much less toxic than other cathelicidin-derived peptides such as those belonging to the α-helical group [20] and, in this respect, it behaves similarly to insect proline-rich AMPs. For example, pyrrhocoricin protected mice against E. click here coli infection, and showed no toxicity up to the maximal applied dose i.v. of 50 mg/kg. Drosocin is completely devoid of toxicity to healthy animals when used via i.v. at 100 mg/kg [8]. On the contrary, lytic peptides such as BMAP-27 and -28 are toxic via i.p. already at 10-15 mg/kg [20]. In vivo Bac7(1-35)

activity in a mouse model of typhoid fever The potential of Bac7(1-35) to protect mice from a bacterial challenge was tested by a mouse model of Salmonella infection. Infected mice develop a systemic disease characterized by rapid bacterial multiplication in the liver and spleen that resembles typhoid fever caused by Salmonella serovar Typhi in humans [21]. Cell-mediated immunity and macrophage activity play a key role in defence against murine salmonellosis,

and it has been shown that these immune responses are lacking in Balb/c mice [22, 23] so that also the antibiotic ciprofloxacin failed to prevent fatal S. typhimurium disease in this mouse strain [22]. For this reason, we preferred to use CBA/Ca mice that show a lower susceptibility to Salmonella infection [22] to study the antimicrobial PRKD3 properties of Bac7(1-35). Nevertheless, an acute infection may be induced by i.p. injection of less than a hundred of CFU/mouse. Male CBA/Ca mice were infected via i.p. with a lethal dose of S. typhimurium ATCC 14028 (1 × 102 CFU/mouse), followed by i.p. injection of peptide at 30 mg/kg. The number of survivors was monitored for 60 days and compared to that of control mice that only received the lethal bacterial challenge. The survival curves of untreated and peptide-treated mice are significantly different (p = 0.01); the mean survival time of control mice was 10 days, while the treatment of infected mice with Bac7(1-35) increased the mean survival time to 24.5 days. It is worth noting that 36% of the infected mice treated with Bac7(1-35) were completely cured with respect to 0% survival for untreated animals (p = 0.

Comments are closed.