In addition, high doses of curcumin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) sho

In addition, high doses of curcumin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) showed better performance in promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery than low dose of curcumin (50 mg/kg). Conclusions: Curcumin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after nerve injuries, highlighting the therapeutic values of curcumin as a neuroprotective drug for peripheral nerve repair applications. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Stem cells are used to generate differentiated somatic cells including neuronal cells. Synthesis and release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter and widely expressed

signaling molecule, were investigated in the murine embryonic stem cell line CGR8 during early differentiation, i.e. in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to maintain pluripotency and in the Staurosporine absence of LIF to induce early differentiation. CGR8 cells express choline find more acetyltransferase (ChAT) as demonstrated by measurement of enzyme activity and substantial inhibition by bromoacetylcholine. Pluripotent CGR8 cells showed a ChAT activity of 250 pmol acetylcholine/mg/h, contained 1.1 pmol acetylcholine/10(6) cells and released about 12.00 pmol acetylcholine/1 x 10(6) cells/6 h. Removal of LIF induced early differentiation as evidenced by reduced transcription factors

Oct-4 and Nanog and a substantial slowing of the proliferation rate. Under this condition acetylcholine synthesis increased to 1640 pmol/mg/h; related to the pluripotent state the 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase content of acetylcholine increased 10-fold and the release to about 32 pmol acetylcholine/1 x 10(6) cells/6 h. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed a significant increase of the K-m for the precursor acetyl-CoA and of V-max without a change of the K-m for the precursor

choline. In conclusion, early differentiation of the stem cell line CGR8 is associated with a substantial increase in ChAT activity and acetylcholine release. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1 MRS) enables the evaluation of in vivo brain function. The purpose of the study was to compare H-1 MRS measurements in schizophrenic patients, who were clinical responders after short-term antipsychotic treatment, with non-responders and healthy controls.

Methods: We investigated a group of 47 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Patients were examined twice – once after a period of at least 7 days without neuroleptics and the second time at least 4 weeks after therapy with stable doses of medication. The follow-up was available in 42 patients. Baseline MRS measurements of clinical responders were compared with non-responders and the group of healthy controls (N = 26).

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