Less is known about the usefulness of this marker in following pa

Less is known about the usefulness of this marker in following patients with prostate cancer on active surveillance. Thus, we examined the relationship between [-2]proPSA and biopsy results in men enrolled in an active surveillance program.

Materials and Methods: In 167 men from our institutional active surveillance program we used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between [-2]proPSA and annual surveillance biopsy results. The outcome

of interest was PRN1371 manufacturer biopsy reclassification (Gleason score 7 or greater, more than 2 positive biopsy cores or more than 50% involvement of any core with cancer). We also examined the association of biopsy results with total prostate specific antigen, %fPSA, [-2]proPSA/%fPSA and the Beckman Coulter Prostate Health Index phi ([-2]proPSA/free prostate specific antigen) x (total prostate specific antigen)(1/2)).

Results: While on active surveillance (median time from diagnosis 4.3 years), 63 (37.7%) men demonstrated biopsy reclassification based on the previously mentioned criteria, including 28 (16.7%) of whom had reclassification

based on Gleason score upgrading (Gleason score 7 or greater). Baseline and longitudinal %fPSA, %[-2]proPSA, [-2]proPSA/% fPSA and phi measurements selleck chemicals llc were significantly associated with biopsy reclassification, and %[-2]proPSA and phi provided the greatest predictive accuracy for high grade cancer.

Conclusions: In men on active surveillance, measures based on [-2]proPSA such as phi appear to provide improved prediction of biopsy reclassification during followup. Additional

validation is warranted to determine whether clinically useful thresholds can be defined, and to better characterize the role of %[-2]proPSA and phi in conjunction with other markers in monitoring patients enrolled in active surveillance.”
“The hematopoietic growth factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), has become one of the few growth factors approved for clinical use. It has therapeutic potential Y-27632 chemical structure for numerous neurodegenerative diseases; however, at present the cellular effects of G-CSF on the central nervous system remain unclear and in need of investigation. In the present study, we used spinal cord ischemia, a neurodegenerative model, to examine the effects of intrathecal (i.t.) G-CSF on glial cell (microglia and astrocyte) activation and neuroprotective factor expression, including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) protein expression. Our results indicate that i.t. G-CSF could enhance ischemia-induced microglial activation and inhibit ischemia-induced astrocyte activation. Both GDNF and VEGF-A are upregulated after injury, and i.t. G-CSF could enhance GDNF and VEGF-A expressions after injury. Interestingly, our results indicate that performing i.t. G-CSF alone on normal animals could have the effect of microglial and astrocyte activation and enhanced GDNF and VEGF-A expressions.

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