Our results indicated that

Our results indicated that methylation of CpG Region 2 could be further evaluated as a tumorigenesis

marker for the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. It is known that chronic pancreatitis is considered to be a precancerous lesion [13] and that cancer-adjacent tissues experience “”the field effect of carcinogenesis,”" which is evident because they show the same genetic changes as the tumor [14, 15]. In this study, we found that CpG Region 2 was hypermethylation in corresponding tumor adjacent normal pancreatic tissues and chronic pancreatitis tissues, and additionally that GDC-0449 in vivo its hypermethylation correlated with pancreatic cancer risk factors (tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption) [13, 16]. These data showed that hypermethyhlation of CpG Region 2 is an early event in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis. Brune et al. demonstrated that aberrant methylation of the SPARC gene promoter as a marker of see more sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma can also be used to detect familial pancreatic adenocarcinoma [7]. Sato et al. showed that the SPARC gene promoter was methylated in pancreatic cancer juice with sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 70.4% for pancreatic cancer diagnosis [17]. These studies utilized a conventional MSP method to detect SPARC gene methylation. In the current study, we not only confirmed the published data about methylation of the SPARC Ricolinostat clinical trial gene promoter in pancreatic cancer, but we also further revealed the methylation level

of the different sites of the CpG island. In particular, our data showed that the methylation pattern of the SPARC gene TRR exhibited two hypermethylation wave peak regions. The methylation level of CpG Region 1 was higher selleck inhibitor in pancreatic cancer tissue than in normal, chronic pancreatitis, and the adjacent normal tissues, but CpG Region 1 of the SPARC gene also was methylated in normal pancreatic tissues.

In contrast, CpG Region 2 was only methylated in pancreatic cancer, adjacent normal, and chronic pancreatitis tissues. These data suggest that methylation of CpG Region 2 is a more sensitive marker to detect early alteration in pancreatic cancer. Aberrant methylation of the SPARC gene has been reported in various kinds of tumors, including lung and colorectal cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, multiple myeloma, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer [18–25]. Infante et al. reported that there were four expression patterns of the SPARC gene in pancreatic cancer tissues: tumor-/stroma- (16%); tumor+/stroma- (17%); tumor-/stroma+ (52%); and tumor+/stroma+ (15%) [26]. Sato et al. reported that SPARC mRNA was expressed in non-neoplastic pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (79%) but not in pancreatic cancer cell lines (0/17) or the majority of primary pancreatic cancer tissues (68%) and that methylation of the SPARC gene promoter was responsible for gene silencing [12]. The molecular mechanism responsible for methylation of the SPARC gene promoter is unknown.

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