The statistical analyses were performed by correlating the inclus

The statistical analyses were performed by correlating the inclusion criteria of the total population of 100 patients by comparing Groups I and II. There were no statistically significant differences between Groups I and II. In the 23 patients of Group II, 12 carotid artery injuries were identified, including: one injury of the common right carotid artery

(8.33%); six injuries of the right internal carotid artery (49.93%); and four injuries of the left internal carotid artery (33.33%). Eleven patients had injuries of the vertebral arteries: eight on the left side (72.7%), two of which had concomitant injuries of the subclavian artery, and three on the right side (27.2%). None of the patients click here presented SP600125 clinical trial with both carotid and vertebral injuries. Four patients showed vascular injuries that extended beyond the topography of the cervical

region: one patient had an injury of the meningeal artery; one patient had an injury of the occipital arteries, maxilar and facial; one patient had thrombosis of the right transverse sinus and right sigmoid sinus; and one patient had a pseudoaneurysm of the spinal artery. The distribution of the 23 patients in Group II with BCVI based on the degree of injury severity included: seven patients with Degree I injuries, ten patients with Degree II injuries, four patients with Degree IV injuries, one patient with a Degree V injury, and one patient with a carotid fistula (Table 4). Table 4 Degree of carotid and vertebral artery injuries in the 23 patients comprising Group II. Degree of arterial injury Vertebral arteries this website Carotid arteries Total Degree I 4 3 7 Degree II 5 5 10 Degree III – - – Degree IV 2 2 4 Degree V – 1 1 Thrombosis – - – Fistula – 1 1 Totals 11 12 23 The treatment of the 23 patients in Group II with BCVI was as follows: 15 patients underwent anticoagulation

therapy with heparin (two of the 15 patients also underwent open heart surgery to correct only the subclavian artery injuries), two patients were only observed, and six patients were treated using endovascular methods selleck chemicals llc (one patient underwent collocation of a stent, and five patients underwent gelfoam embolization). Of the 77 patients in Group I, who did not exhibit BCVI, 14 patients died (18.1%) and 63 patients survived (81.8%). Out of the 63 surviving patients, 16 showed sequelae of trauma (25.3%), and six had other complications (9.52%). The sequelae of the trauma in the 16 Group I patients included: two with paresthesias, two with tetraplegias, five with paresis, and seven with hemiplegias. The complications in the six patients of Group I included: respiratory failure in one patient, hemodynamic instability in one patient, sepsis in one patient, deep vein thrombosis in one patient, acute renal failure in one patient, and multiple organ failure in one patient. Of the 23 patients in Group II, who presented with BCVI, seven patients died (30.4%) and 16 patients survived (69.5%).

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