Terminology AT III inhibits serine proteases involved in the coag

Terminology AT III inhibits serine proteases involved in the coagulation cascade. Additionally, AT III is reported to inhibit activation of inflammatory signaling cascades, including the activation of nuclear factor-��B, production of tumor necrosis inhibitor Wortmannin factor-�� and interleukin-6 in various cell types. Peer review The manuscript is clearly written and the authors discuss their findings in an adequate way. Moreover, the reduction of the dose of AT III via injection in the portal vein has clinical implications. Footnotes Peer reviewer: Dr. Georg Alexander Roth, Medical University of Vienna, General Anesthesia and Critical Care, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Level 9I, Vienna A-1090, Austria S- Editor Gou SX L- Editor Kerr C E- Editor Zhang DN
Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent and may be encountered more frequently among children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared with healthy peers (1�C4).

Vitamin D exerts anabolic effects on bone (5) and may play a role in improving bone health in children with IBD (6). This vitamin is also involved in the regulation of the immune system (7), and it may play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD (8) and as an adjunct to treatment. In pediatric populations, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration greater than 20 ng/ml is considered ��sufficient�� based on rickets prevention (9). However, studies in adults have shown that PTH levels begin to plateau and intestinal calcium transport is maximized when serum 25OHD concentration is at least 32 ng/ml (10, 11).

Mechanisms responsible for suboptimal vitamin D status that may be amplified in children and adolescents with IBD include: decreased vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, decreased intestinal absorption, and increased loss through an inflamed intestine. Studies have identified upper gastrointestinal involvement, disease severity, and compromised nutritional status as risk factors for hypovitaminosis D in this population (1, 3). Guidelines for the treatment of vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD concentration <20 ng/ml) in healthy children include the use of a wide range of cumulative vitamin D doses (84,000 to 600,000 IU) and recommend the higher doses for adolescents (9). There are no studies examining the efficacy and safety of any regimen for the treatment of vitamin D insufficiency in children with IBD. We hypothesized that: 1) doses in the higher end of the proposed spectrum are needed for this purpose, given that this disease preferentially afflicts adolescents, and disease-specific factors may reduce the bioavailability of vitamin D; and 2) vitamin D3 is more efficacious than vitamin D2, in accordance with the Brefeldin_A literature (12, 13).

Bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing NAV3 DNA (RP11-

Bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing NAV3 DNA (RP11-36P3 and RP11-136F16; Research Genetics Inc., selleck bio Huntsville, AL, USA) and the chromosome 12 centromere probe (pA12H8; ATCC) were labelled with Alexa 594-5-dUTP and Alexa 488-5-dUTP (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), respectively, for tissue samples, or with digoxigenin and biotin, respectively, for cell lines. Detailed methods for probe labelling, slide preparation, and arm-specific MFISH are provided in Supplementary Online Materials, Method 2. The FISH results of the tissue samples were analysed by two blinded, independent researchers. Results are reported as the percentage of abnormal nuclei in 200 total nuclei as previously described (Ranki et al, 2011). For each cell line, 9�C47 metaphases were analysed for NAV3 and centromere 12, whereas 5�C11 metaphases were analysed for arm MFISH.

NAV3 LOH analysis using microsatellite markers and single-nucleotide primer ex tension NAV3 LOH assays were performed as previously described (Hahtola et al, 2008b). In addition, the A/G polymorphism (rs1852464) within exon 19 of the NAV3 gene, which exhibits up to 0.493 heterozygosity in Caucasians/Europeans, was used in the single-nucleotide primer extension reaction. Detailed methods are provided in Supplementary Online Materials, Method 3. Tumour samples were defined as showing LOH, if one allele had 40% more or less rs1852464 signal than matched normal tissue. In the event of constitutional homozygosity, LOH was assessed using flanking microsatellite markers (Cleton-Jansen et al, 2001).

Array CGH DNA was extracted from 50-��m paraffin-embedded tissue sections by standard protocols. Reference DNA was extracted from blood pooled at the Finnish Red Cross (Helsinki, Finland) from four healthy males and females after informed consent. DNA was then digested, labelled, and hybridised to a 244-K oligonucleotide array according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Samples were scanned with a DNA microarray scanner and analysed using Feature Extraction v. and CGH Analytics software v. 3.5.14 (Agilent Technologies). Analysis was performed using the Z-score and a 1-Mb moving average window. Log2-values under ��0.4 were not considered aberrant. Three colon carcinoma cell lines and two colon carcinoma tumour samples were analysed.

NAV3 gene silencing Batimastat in vitro The NAV3 gene was silenced with pooled siRNA oligonucleotides (On-Target SMART pool, Dharmacon, Chicago, IL, USA) as instructed by the producer. The CRL-1541 and CRL-1539 cell lines were transfected with 200pmol NAV3 pooled siRNA or scrambled control siRNA (Dharmacon), using Dharmafect1 transfection reagent (Dharmacon; for details see Supplementary Online Materials, Method 4). Efficient knockdown was confirmed by qPCR and microarrays (as shown in Supplementary Figure 1).

The first one of the four deoxynucleotides (dNTPs) is added to th

The first one of the four deoxynucleotides (dNTPs) is added to the sequencing reaction, and the DNA polymerase catalyzes its incorporation into the DNA strand, in case there is complementarity. During each incorporation event, a phosphodiester bond between the dNTPs is Fluoro Sorafenib formed, releasing pyrophosphate (PPi) in a quantity equivalent to the amount of incorporated nucleotide. In sequence, the enzyme ATP sulfurylase converts PPi to ATP in the presence of APS. ATP is used in the conversion of luciferin to oxyluciferin mediated by the enzyme luciferase. This gives rise to light in intensity that is proportional to the amount of ATP used. Light is detected by a charge coupled device camera and detected as a peak in a pyrogram. The height of each peak is proportional to the number of nucleotides incorporated.

The system is regenerated with the enzyme apyrase that degrades ATP and unincorporated dNTPs. Then, the next dNTP is added. Addition of dNTPs is performed one at a time. Generation of a signal indicates which nucleotide is the next one occurring in the sequence. As the process goes on, the complementary DNA strand grows and the nucleotide sequence is determined according to the signal peaks in the pyrogram. Fig. 1 The 454 pyrosequencing approach. The 454 pyrosequencing technology has evolved over the years, with consequent increase in the length of sequence reads and output. The first-generation instrument (GS 20) yields 100 bp sequence reads and up to 60 Mb per individual run. The second-generation instrument (GS FLX) yields 250 bp sequence reads and up to 150 Mb per run.

The third-generation (XLR and now GS FLX Titanium) yields 400 bp sequence reads and about 500 Mb per run. Recently, the GS FLX+was released, which offers read lengths up to 1 kb with a mode read length of 700 bp. Other NGS platforms The Applied Biosystems Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection (SOLiD) system is based on sequencing-by-ligation technology. In the SOLiD approach, sequencing is obtained by measuring serial ligation of an oligonucleotide to the sequencing primer by a DNA ligase enzyme (33). Like in pyrosequencing, DNA fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adapters, attached to beads, and then amplified by emulsion PCR to provide sufficient signal for the sequencing reactions.

Beads are deposited on a flow cell surface, and the ligase-mediated sequencing begins by annealing of the sequencing primer to the adapter sequences on each amplified Dacomitinib fragment. In a unique approach of sequencing using interrogation probes, each ligation step is accompanied by fluorescence detection, after which a regeneration step prepares the extended primer for the next round of ligation (29, 31). The newest sequencers using this technology can generate sequence reads that are 50 to 75 bp long.

For T-CEA, the low and high expression scores were defined as < 6

For T-CEA, the low and high expression scores were defined as < 6 and �� 6, respectively (Fig. 1) [9]. Figure 1 High expression of CEA in colorectal cancer (�� 75%). Statistical analysis All statistical calculations were performed using spss version 10.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). The differences in the clinico-pathological characteristics Tipifarnib leukemia between low and high S-CEA or T-CEA expression were performed by Pearson chi-square. The relationship between S-CEA and T-CEA was also calculated by Pearson chi-square. Disease-free survival time (in months) was measured from the date of surgery to the time of event (recurrence or metastasis) or to the last census prior to closure of the study (1 August 2003). Kaplan�CMeier survival analysis with the Log Rank test was used to evaluate the prognosis of serum and tissue CEA in CRC.

Multivariate analysis was performed with Cox��s proportional hazard regression model to assess the effects of different variables on patients�� survival. Differences were taken as significant when P (two-tailed) was < 0.05. Results In this study, there were 173 patients with CRC including 86 male subjects and 87 female subjects. The median age of all patients was 59 years (range 27�C85 years). 37.0% (64/173) patients had a high level of S-CEA including 29 male subjects and 35 female subjects, while 63.0% (109/173) patients were in the low S-CEA group. 39.3% (68/173) patients were in the high T-CEA group (38 male subjects and 30 female subjects).

Comparison of clinico-pathological features between high and low S-CEA or T-CEA There were no significant differences in gender, age, tumour size, tumour gross type, mucin production, differentiation grade, venous invasion, stage distribution, T and N classification between the low and high S-CEA or T-CEA groups (Table 1). Table 1 Clinico-pathological characteristics in S-CEA and T-CEA group n (%). The relationship between S-CEA and T-CEA groups There was no significant relationship between groups of S-CEA and T-CEA (P=0.215) (Table 2). Table 2 The relationship between S-CEA and T-CEA groups. Relationship of S-CEA to disease-free survival by univariate analyses The mean disease-free survival time after operation in the low S-CEA group was longer than patients of high level of S-CEA (68.4 vs 51.3 months, 95% CI), but there was no significant difference between them (P=0.3709) (Fig.

2). Figure 2 Kaplan�CMeier survival analysis for the difference of disease free survival time between low and high S-CEA. Relationship of T-CEA with disease-free survival by univariate analyses Kaplan�CMeier survival analysis with the Log Rank test showed that the mean disease-free survival time after operation in the low T-CEA Batimastat group was significantly longer than in the high T-CEA group (72.0 vs 55.8 months, P=0.028) (Fig. 3).

For instance, a recent comprehensive review of 64 adolescent smok

For instance, a recent comprehensive review of 64 adolescent smoking cessations studies showed that only 27 (42%) studies even reported ethnicity of subjects (Sussman & Sun, 2009). Even in this present review where smoking interventions targeted 50% or greater minority adolescents, three CAL-101 (23%; Joffe et al., 2009; Prokhorov et al., 2008; Sun et al., 2007) did not take into account culture specific values. These evidence indicate that although developing culturally sensitive tobacco intervention is a long-term goal, perhaps, the first viable goal is to start collecting more specific information like ethnicity/race, and other cultural values such as level of acculturation to begin to assess whether these programs are generalizable to ethnic/racial minority adolescents and whether culturally tailoring would improve intervention effects.

Another area for future research is tailoring tobacco interventions for African American youth; much to our surprise, there were few tobacco interventions for African American youth. This is surprising, given that the majority of culturally sensitive tobacco cessation interventions for adults were aimed at African Americans (Lawrence, Graber, Mills, Meissner, & Warnecke, 2003). Only one study (Kaufman et al., 1994) in this review tailored the intervention to adolescents in African American community. In order to better understand possible surface and deep structural changes that can be applied to tobacco interventions for African American adolescents, examining culturally tailored interventions to address other risky behaviors among African American youth may be informative.

For example, The Aban Aya Youth Project (Flay, Graumlich, Segawa, Burns, & Holliday, 2004), a prevention program for violence and substance use, incorporated cultural themes of self and cultural pride and family and community ties through storytelling and proverbs drawn from African and African American history and literature and homework assignments involving parents. Another drug prevention program targeting African American girls (Corneille, Ashcraft, & Belgrave, 2005) included cultural component that emphasized Afrocentric values, such as a sense of communalism and collectiveness, spirituality and connectedness to the past and future, as well as issues surrounding race and gender. These values were reinforced through team building and problem solving activities as well as music, poetry, and dance.

Taken from the adult literature, Kick It! Program (Resnicow et al., 1997), a self-help smoking prevention program developed for African American adult smokers used video stories about African American smokers as well as examples from Black history (e.g., Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King, Malcolm X) to motivate quitting smoking. These cultural components can be used Entinostat as an initial guide to begin developing culturally tailored tobacco interventions for African American youth.

, 2007; Zhang et al , 2011) However, analyses of home smoking ba

, 2007; Zhang et al., 2011). However, analyses of home smoking bans have relied largely on the sole response of one household member regarding the existence and degree of smoking bans in the home. In contrast, relatively few studies have investigated potential sellckchem discordance in perceptions of home smoking bans among different household members. Mumford et al. used 1998/1999 Tobacco Use Supplement (TUS) to the U.S. Current Population Survey (CPS) and found that an estimated 12% of their sample of households with two or more adults provided discordant reports about home smoking bans (Mumford, Levy, & Romano, 2004). The discordance varied by smoking status, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and presences of children.

Discordant reports of bans may be the result of differential reporting due to different duration and frequency of observation by reporters, different operational definition, and social desirability. Ding et al. found that children in families that provided discordant reports on home smoking bans were exposed to higher SHS level compared with those with complete bans (Ding et al., 2011). This suggests that concordant ban reports are associated with reduced SHS exposure, and discordant reports could reflect lax enforcement of or incomplete smoking bans. In a qualitative study of household smoking restrictions, some participants reported resistance from smokers in the family when someone proposed to ban smoking in the home. Some of these families compromised and set up a partial ban (Kegler, Escoffery, Groff, Butler, & Foreman, 2007), which reduced but did not completely eliminate SHS exposure (Blackburn et al.

, 2003; Wakefield et al., 2000). As overall rates of home smoking bans have increased and social recognition of the harm of involuntary smoking exposure, especially to children, has greatly improved over the last decade throughout the United States (Hyland et al., 2009), the demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with the discordance may have changed accordingly. To date, we are unaware of any study examining this question. Yet, it has important implications for both research methodology and public health practice. The current study used nationally representative surveys to track the evolution of parental discordance/concordance in the reporting of home smoking bans among two-parent households with underage children from 1995 to 2007. We also investigated household and parental characteristics associated with discordant/concordant home ban reports over this period. Methods Study Population The 1995�C1996, Brefeldin_A 1998�C1999, 2001�C2002, 2003, and 2006�C2007 TUS-CPS data were used in the current study.

Figure 1 Induction of FGFR1 by IFN-��/�� treatment in hepatic can

Figure 1 Induction of FGFR1 by IFN-��/�� treatment in hepatic cancer cells. Development of an anti-FGFR1 monoclonal antibody We developed novel anti-FGFR1 mAbs by immunizing BALB/c mice with an FGFR1 expression vector. Six antibodies selleckchem Crizotinib recognizing FGFR1 were isolated from the mice, two of which, designated A2C9-1 and A2D11-1, showed strong affinity in ELISAs and were characterized further. For kinetic analyses, the extracellular domain of FGFR1 was covalently coupled to a CM-5 sensor chip at low density (215 response units of FGFR1), after which we determined the Kd values for A2C9-1 and A2D11-1 to be 209 nM and 7.03 ��M, respectively (Figure S2A). Thus A2C9-1 showed the strongest affinity for FGFR1.

Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that A2C9-1 reacts with FGFR1 (Figure 2), and Western blot analysis showed the molecular weight of the ectopically expressed FGFR1 to be around 115 kDa (Figure S2B). Figure 2 Development of anti-FGFR1 mAbs. Anti-FGFR1 mAbs inhibit HCC cell growth in vitro We next examined the effects of A2C9-1 and A2D11-1 mAbs on the growth of hepatic cancer cells (Figure 3). IFN-�� showed some antitumor activity against hepatic cancer cells, and weak growth suppression was seen when A2C9-1 or A2D11-1 was added to cultures in the absence of IFN-��. On the other hand, treatment with a combination of A2C9-1 and IFN-�� significantly reduced cell survival, as compared to treatment with IFN-�� alone (P=0.01) (Figure 3). The effect of A2D11-1 in combination with IFN-�� was no greater than the effect of IFN-�� alone. Figure 3 Antitumor activity of anti-FGFR1 mAbs in combination with IFN-�� in vitro.

Effects of A2C9-1 with and without IFN-�� in a mouse xenograft tumor model We next tested the antitumor effects of an anti-FGFR1 mAb in a mouse xenograft model of human HCC (Figure 4A and B). In mice treated with only A2C9-1 or IFN-��, tumor volumes did not differ from the control group administered PBS. However, treatment with IFN-��+A2C9-1 had an inhibitory effect on tumor growth, though the suppression was not statistically significant. Finally, in mice treated with IFN-��+A2C9-1+PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), there was a significant antitumor effect, as compared to groups treated with PBS (p=0.026), INF-�� (p=0.03), A2C9-1 (p=0.014), PBMC (p=0.022) or IFN-��+PBMCs (p=0.007). In fact, the tumor disappeared in 2 of the 4 animals tested. During the course of the experiments we detected no cytotoxicity against normal hepatocytes (data not shown). Histological analysis revealed marked infiltration by mononuclear cells of the residual Brefeldin_A tumor tissues from mice treated with IFN-��+A2C9-1+PBMCs, but no such infiltration was observed in tumor tissues from mice in the other groups (Figure S3).

14 Interferon may exert a direct effect on cancer risk due to its

14 Interferon may exert a direct effect on cancer risk due to its antiproliferative activity. Finally, interferon may blunt the carcinogenic effects of viral replication or intracellular third viral proteins responsible for promoting cell growth, proliferation, and malignant transformation by suppressing viral replication.16 To address the lack of long-term follow-up data for combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin, our study sought to investigate the long-term clinical outcomes of responders and non-responders to combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin. However, the follow-up period of all subjects was not consistent or well-matched, as this was a retrospective study. The follow-up period was longer in the non-responders. Therefore, more follow-up data in responders is necessary for an exact comparison with non-responders.

According to this study, none of 57 SVR patients progressed to decompensated liver disease or HCC. However, only 2 patients (5.3 %) among the 38 relapsers progressed to HCC and 3 patients (7.0 %) among 43 nonresponders progressed to decompensated liver disease or HCC. This fact raised the possibility that standard interferon-based combination therapy decreased the risk of decompensated liver disease or HCC in the SVR group. However, it is uncertain whether interferon-based therapy that does not result in a SVR has an effect in slowing the progression of disease and the risk of HCC.14 Some studies reported that interferon had beneficial long term effects that reduced the occurrence of HCC, even in patients who did not have complete response to interferon.

17 In one such study, retreament with IFN to incomplete responders to previous IFN therapy appeared to have the additional effect of suppressing the development of HCC.15 That study suggested that IFN treatment had a suppressive effect on disease progression even in patients whose HCV was not eradicated with IFN. However, more studies should be conducted regarding the impact of interferon-based combination therapy on the long-term outcomes of HCV non-eradicated patients. The recent treatment of choice Entinostat for chronic hepatitis C has been pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin. In randomized-multinational phase III clinical trials, PEG-IFN plus ribavirin produced overall SVR rates of 56%16 and 63%17 in initial treatment patients with chronic hepatitis C, superior to the standard IFN plus ribavirin regimen. Therefore, further studies are warranted to determine whether better results for long-term clinical outcomes of HCV-infected patients can be achieved with a combination therapy consisting of PEG-IFN and ribavirin.

The modeling approach makes it easier to analyze multiple dimensi

The modeling approach makes it easier to analyze multiple dimensions of a specific policy and the potential impact of a policy or policies (including unintended consequences) before they are implemented. Modeling also helps to assess the complex array of factors that modulate overall selleck chemical impact. Tools for Assessing the Effects of Reduced Nicotine Tools for assessing the impact of RNC cigarettes include imaging studies, animal and human laboratory studies, clinical trials, and measurement of biomarkers of exposure and harm. The following describes the types of studies that are likely to contribute to the science base for reducing nicotine in cigarettes and other combustible products. Preclinical Animal Models Understanding the neurobiology of nicotine addiction has advanced significantly (D��Souza & Markou, 2011; Gotti, Zoli, & Clementi, 2006; Kuryatov, Berrettini, & Lindstrom, 2011; Saccone et al.

, 2009; Thorgeirsson et al., 2008; Tuesta, Fowler, & Kenny, 2011). However, there is little knowledge regarding how reducing the levels of nicotine in cigarettes would affect the developing brain or a brain that has been altered by chronic exposure to nicotine. Animal models allow investigation in these areas, and such basic research will be important to continue regardless of whether or not a nicotine reduction policy is implemented (Donny et al., 2012; Hatsukami, Perkins, et al., 2010). Animal studies on nicotine reduction also allow for controlled analysis of factors that might alter the functional relationship between nicotine reduction and outcomes of interest.

The FDA and the Drug Enforcement Agency recognize that specific animal models are particularly informative when assessing abuse liability (Food and Drug Administration, 2010). The following animal models and techniques would be particularly useful in evaluating effects of reducing Cilengitide levels of nicotine: (a) Drug self-administration models that provide estimates of threshold reinforcing nicotine doses in adolescents and adults and factors that moderate them; (b) demand curve analysis and growth-curve analysis that provide quantitative techniques to facilitate detection of factors that moderate reduction and acquisition of self-administration, respectively (Greenwald & Hursh, 2006; Hursh, Galuska, Winger, & Woods, 2005; Hursh & Silberberg, 2008; Lanza, Donny, Collins, & Balster, 2004); (c) drug discrimination models that can be used to screen understudied or novel constituents for their own abuse potential or capability of enhancing nicotine��s effects (Smith & Stolerman, 2009); (d) withdrawal models that allow for further delineation of the mechanisms underlying possible adverse consequences of reduction (e.g.

1A1A) ) The vast majority of ACCs display overexpression of IGF2

1A1A).). The vast majority of ACCs display overexpression of IGF2 gene transcripts, whereas the H19 selleck chemicals Tofacitinib [a micro-RNA negatively regulating IGF2 expression (16,17)] and CDKN1C (encoding the cell cycle dependent kinase inhibitor, p57kip2) genes are down-regulated, suggesting an imprinting defect or loss of heterozygosity of this chromosomal region, similar to that commonly observed in BWS. To validate these microarray results, quantitative RT-PCR was performed on RNA isolated from three randomly selected ACAs and three ACCs (Fig. 1B1B).). We found a greater than 60-fold increase of IGF2 transcripts in all three ACC samples when compared with IGF2 levels in ACA samples. Further analysis of active IGF signaling with these six human tumor samples was performed by immunoblotting for levels of total IGF-1R protein and phosphorylated AktSer473, a downstream mediator of active IGF signaling (Fig.

1C1C).). Expression of IGF-1R was observed in all six tissues, whereas two ACC samples possessed far greater levels of the receptor. Immunoblotting for phospho-AktSer473 suggested active IGF signaling in all three ACC samples and in only one ACA sample. To further validate the observation that IGF-mediated signaling was specifically increased in ACC compared with normal and adenomatous samples, tissue microarray slides containing 24 ACC, 22 ACA, and four normal adrenals were stained for phospho-IGF-1R and phospho-AktSer473 (Fig. 1D1D).). A marked increase in signal intensity of phospho-IGF-1R and phospho-AktSer473 was observed in ACC samples compared with ACA and normal adrenal tissue, represented here as a shift in the percentage of ACC samples with high intensity staining for these activated proteins.

In summary, molecular profiling of human adrenal tumors demonstrated overexpression of two critical components (IGF2 and IGF-1R) of the IGF signaling cascade and concomitant activation of the downstream effector, Akt. These results are consistent with the IGF pathway playing a critical role in ACC pathogenesis. Figure 1 Up-regulation of IGF2, overexpression of IGF-1R, and active IGF signaling in human ACCs in comparison with normal and adenoma tissues. A, Snapshot heat map of the 11p15.5 chromosomal region generated from Affymetrix U133A 2.0 Plus oligonucleotide array. …

Expression of IGF pathway members and downstream signaling in ACC cell lines To begin to determine the biologic relevance of IGF-1R in ACC, we first examined the endogenous expression profiles of IGF ligands, IGF-1R, and downstream effectors of IGF-mediated signaling in five ACC cell lines (Fig. 22).). We chose two mouse lines (Y1 and ST5) and three human Anacetrapib lines derived from invasive primary adrenocortical carcinomas (NCI-H295, SW13, and RL251). Using RNA purified from cells maintained in serum-free or serum-containing media, RT-PCR was performed to detect IGF1 and IGF2 gene expression.