Applied and Enviromental Microbiology 2005, 4097–4100 27 Jacobs

Applied and Enviromental Microbiology 2005, 4097–4100. 27. Jacobs E, Fuchte K, Bredt W: Amino Acid Sequence and Antigenicity of the Amino-terminus of the168 kDa Adherence Protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae . J Gen Microbiol 1987,133(8):2233–2236.PubMed QNZ 28. Frydenberg J, Lind K, Hu PC: Cloning of Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA and expression of P1-epitopes in Escherichia coli . Isr J Med Sci 1987,23(6):759–762.PubMed 29. Smiley BK, Minion FC: Enhanced readthrough of opal (UGA) stop codons and production of Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 epitopes in Escherichia coli . Gene 1993,134(1):33–40.PubMedCrossRef 30. Trevino LB, Haldenwang WG, Baseman JB: Expression of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

antigens in Escherichia coli . Infect Immun 1986,53(1):129–134.PubMedCentralPubMed 31. Feldner J, Bredt W, Compound C datasheet Kahane I: Adherence of erythrocytes to Mycoplasma pneumoniae . Infect Immun 1979,25(1):60–67.PubMedCentralPubMed 32. Baseman JB, Banai M, Kahane I: Sialic acid residues mediate Mycoplasma pneumoniae attachment

to human and sheep erythrocytes. Infect Immun 1982,38(1):389–391.PubMedCentralPubMed 33. Hu PC, Cole RM, Huang YS, Graham JA, Gardner DE, Collier AM, Clyde WA Jr: Mycoplasma pneumoniae Small molecule library infection: role of a surface protein in the attachment organelle. Science 1982,216(4543):313–315.PubMedCrossRef 34. Feldner J, Gobel U, Bredt W: Mycoplasma pneumoniae adhesin localized to tip structure by monoclonal antibody. Nature 1982,298(5876):765–767.PubMedCrossRef 35. Brunner H, Feldner J, Bredt W: Effect of monoclonal antibodies to the attachment-tip on experimental Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection of hamsters, A preliminary report. Isr J Med Sci 1984,20(9):878–881.PubMed 36. Beghetto E, Paolis FD, Montagnani F, Cellesi C, Gargano N:

Discovery of Mycoplasma pneumoniae antigens by use of a whole-genome lambda display library. Microbes Infect Montelukast Sodium 2009, 11:66–73.PubMedCrossRef 37. Krause DC, Baseman JB: Inhibition of Mycoplasma pneumoniae hemadsorption and adherence to respiratory epithelium by antibodies to a membrane protein. Infect Immun 1983, 39:1180–1186.PubMedCentralPubMed 38. Drasbek M, Christiansen G, Drasbek KR, Holm A, Birkelund S: Interaction between the P1 protein of Mycoplasma pneumonia and receptors on Hep-2 cells. Microbiology 2007, 153:3791–3799.PubMedCrossRef 39. Schurwanz N, Jacobs E, Dumke R: Strategy to create Chimeric protein derived from functional adhesin regions of Mycoplasma pneumonia for vaccine development. Infect Immun 2009, 5007–5015. 40. Jani D, Nagarkatti R, Beatty W, Angel R, Slebodnick C, Andersen J, Kumar S, Rathore D: HDP-a novel heme detoxification protein from the malaria parasite. PLoS Pathog 2008,4(4):e100053. Competing Interests The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests. Patent application (770/DEL/2012) has been filed under title “Development of immunoassay based on recombinant Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 protein fragments”.

23 Di Cristofano C, Minervini A, Menicagli M, Salinitri G, Berta

23. Di Cristofano C, Minervini A, Menicagli M, Salinitri G, Bertacca G, Pefanis G, Masieri L, Lessi F, Collecchi P, Minervini R, Carini M, Bevilacqua G, Cavazzana A: Nuclear expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is involved in tumor progression. Am J Surg Pathol 2007, 31: 1875–81.CrossRefPubMed 24. Klatte T, Seligson DB, Riggs SB, Leppert JT, Berkman MK, Kleid MD, Yu H, Kabbinavar FF, Pantuck AJ, Belldegrun AS: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Clin

Cancer Res 2007, 13: 7388–93.CrossRefPubMed 25. Kubis HP, Hanke Trichostatin A supplier N, Scheibe RJ, Gros G: Accumulation and nuclear import of HIF1 alpha during high and low oxygen concentration in skeletal muscle cells in primary culture. Biochim Biophys Acta 2005, 1745 (2) : 187–195.CrossRefPubMed 26. Minervini A, Di Cristofano C, Serni S, Carini M, Lidgren Anders, Hedberg Ylva, Grankvist Kjell, Rasmuson Torgny, Bergh Anders, Ljungberg Börje: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha expression in renal cell carcinoma

analyzed by tissue microarray. Eur Urol 2006, 50: 1272–7. Eur Urol 2007, 51 :1451–2CrossRef 27. Bos R, van Diest PJ, de Jong JS, Groep P, Valk P, Wall E: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha is associated with angiogenesis, and expression of bFGF, PDGF-BB, and EGFR in invasive breast cancer. Histopathology EPZ004777 cost 2005, 46: 31–6.CrossRefPubMed 28. Lidgren A, Hedberg Y, Grankvist K, Rasmuson T, Bergh A, Ljungberg B: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression in renal cell carcinoma analyzed by tissue microarray. Eur Urol 2006, 50: 1272–7.CrossRefPubMed 29. Moon EJ, Brizel DM, Chi JT, Dewhirst MW: The potential role of intrinsic hypoxia markers as prognostic variables in cancer. Antioxid Redox Signal 2007, 9: 1237–94.CrossRefPubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions GĐ conceived of the study and drafted the manuscript. KMI participated in the design of the study, carried out the immunoassays and performed the statistical analysis. EB carried out the immunoassays, participated in the

sequence alignment and helped to draft the manuscript. IH, MG and BG carried out the molecular studies and participated in the sequence alignment. NJ conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction Aberrations Amrubicin in regulation of a restricted number of key pathways that control cell proliferation and cell survival are mandatory for tumour see more growth and progression. Deregulated cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis are both essential for cell transformation and sustained growth. Hematological neoplasia are considered “”special tumors”" for their high sensitivity to the occurrence of spontaneous and pharmacological apoptosis. These cancers origin by tissues that use apoptosis for the regulation of their physiological mechanisms. These considerations explain the high sensitivity of these diseases to chemotherapy.

6 Å and the structure solved by molecular replacement using the c

6 Å and the structure solved by molecular replacement using the crystal

structure of Z-VAD-FMK solubility dmso CyanoQ from Synechocystis (PDB:3LS0, for details see Table 1). The refined co-ordinates of the 3D model of CyanoQ from T. elongatus have been deposited at the Protein Data Bank using the accession code 3ZSU. The first nine N-terminal residues as well as the last C-terminal residue of CyanoQ could not be detected in the Selleck MCC-950 electron density map so only residues 34–151 were fitted. Topologically the protein belongs to four-helix bundle superfamily and its fold is classified as mainly alpha up-down bundle (CATH with four α-helices, of which the first two are broken, and one 310 helix (Fig. 4a). The three-dimensional structure of CyanoQ from thermophilic T. elongatus showed a high level of similarity with the two structures of CyanoQ (with and without bound zinc) from the mesophilic Synechocystis S3I-201 order (Jackson et al. 2010) with a RMSD of 1.6 Å for the C α atoms (Table 2 and Fig. S7). Table 1 Data collection and

refinement statistics for the CyanoQ crystal structure   CyanoQ data X-ray source Diamond I03 Data processing Mosflm/Scala Space group P 21 21 21 Unit-cell parameters a = 47.165 Å, b = 47.165 Å, c = 106.700 Å, α = β = 90°, γ = 120° Wavelength (Å) 1.0722 Resolution (Å) 53.4–1.6 (1.69–1.60) Measured reflections 130,767 (19,307) Unique reflections 18,728 (2707) Mn (I/sd) 10.8 (3.7) Completeness (%) 99.38 (100.0) Multiplicity 6.98 (7.13) R meas (%) 0.11 (0.62) Solvent content (%) 48.6 R work/R aminophylline free (%) 16.7/19.0 Protein atoms 974 Solvent atoms 79 RMSD from ideal   Bond lengths (Å) 0.022 Bond angles

(°) 1.982 Average B factor (Å2) 18.2 Ramachandran favoured region (%) 100 Ramachandran allowed region (%) 0 \(R_\textmeas = \mathop \sum \limits_h (\fracn_hn_h – 1)\mathop \sum \limits_I I_hl – < I_h > /\mathop \sum \limits_h \mathop \sum \limits_I < I_h >\) Fig. 4 a Overall structure of CyanoQ from T. elongatus coloured according to DSSP (Kabsch and Sander 1983): α-helices (α1-α4, red), 310 helix (blue, η1), hydrogen-bonded turns (cyan) and bends (green). b top and c bottom view of the protein coloured according to sequence conservation in cyanobacteria with most conserved residues shown as sticks. Bottom view in c corresponds to the end of CyanoQ containing the N- and C-termini. d Consurf (Ashkenazy et al. 2010) analysis of two conserved cavities (H4-H1 in upper view and H2–H3 in lower view; see text for details) with most conserved residues shown in dark pink and magenta. The most divergent regions are coloured in cyan Table 2 Comparison of sequence identities and similarities (%, top) and structural RMSD (bottom) of CyanoQ from T. elongatus (3ZSU), Synechocystis with and without zinc (3LS1 and 3LS0) and PsbQ from spinach (1VYK and 1NZE)   3ZSU 3LS0 3LS1 1VYK 1NZE   T. elongatus Synechocystis S. oleracea 3ZSU   31/50 31/50 14/24 14/24 3LS0 1.6 Å   100/100 17/33 17/33 3LS1 2.0 Å 0.

Figure 5 Analysis of anthramycin production by HPLC/MS After sep

Figure 5 Analysis of anthramycin production by HPLC/MS. After separating anthramycin on an HPLC column, mass spectrometry was performed using 6520 Agilent Accurate-Mass Q-TOF LC/MS. Conclusions This study shows that by isolation of new strains and testing

several plasmids, a host-vector system in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic Streptomyces species could be developed. Two antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters from mesophilic and thermophilic Streptomyces were heterlogously expressed in one strain. We expect that by utilizing thermophilic Streptomyces-specific promoters, more genes and especially antibiotic genes clusters of mesophilic Streptomyces should be heterologously expressed. Methods Bacterial strains, plasmids, and general methods Strains used in this work are listed in Table 1. Plasmid isolation, transformation of E. coli DH5α and PCR amplification followed Sambrook et al. [42]. Cyclosporin A Streptomyces culture, plasmid isolation and preparation of protoplasts and transformation of Streptomyces lividans ZX7 followed Kieser et al. [6]. Plasmid trans-conjugation from E. coli ET12567/pUZ8002 into thermophilic Streptomyces strains followed Bierman et al.

[38]. KpnI-treated pTSC1 was cloned in AZD1480 solubility dmso pBluescript II SK to obtain pCWH100 and was sequenced by primer-walking at Shanghai Invitrogen Inc. Sequence comparisons were done with software from the National Center for Biotechnology Information http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​BLAST. The complete nucleotide sequence of pTSC1 was deposited in the GenBank database under no. GU271942. Isolation and identification of thermophilic Streptomyces strains Samples of garden soil, weed compost and swine manure were collected from Shanghai city, Hunan, Hubei and Fujian provinces in the summers of 2005 and 2006. The samples Resveratrol were dried at 100°C for 1 h and cultivated on SC medium (starch 10 g, casein 0.3 g, KNO3 2 g, MgSO4.7H2O 0.05 g, FeSO4.7H2O 0.01 g, CaCO3 0.02 g, agar 18 g, H2O to 1000 ml, pH7.2) [43] at 50°C for 3-5 d. Thermophilic Streptomyces strains were cultured in TSB (Oxoid tryptone soya broth powder, 30 g, H2O to 1000 ml)

liquid medium at 45°C for 1 d and genomic DNA was isolated followed the Kirby mix procedure [6]. 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR with primers (5′-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3′ and 5′-TCAGGCTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3′). PCR conditions were: template DNA denatured at 95°C for 5 min, then 95°C 30 s, 55°C 30 s, 72°C 2 min, for 35 cycles. PCR products were cloned in pBluescript II SK and sequenced with its T7 and T3 primers. Strains were inoculated on MS (mannitol 20 g, soya flour 20 g, agar 20 g, H2O to 1000 ml, pH7) medium covered with cellophane disks. After 2 days incubation at 42°C, the cells were fixed with fresh 2% glutaraldehyde (pH7.2) and 1% osmium tetroxide. Spores were examined with a JSM-6360LV scanning electron microscopy (Jeol).

These proteins were often not detectable without PHA stimulation

These proteins were often not detectable without PHA stimulation. (B) Dose response of fresh lymphocytes to PHA. Lymphocytes were stimulated with the indicated concentrations of PHA for 48 hrs. The expression of MLH1 and MSH2

proteins in fresh blood lymphocytes increased in a dose-dependent manner. (C) Dose response of immortalized lymphocytes to PHA. There was no effect of PHA on immortalized lymphocytes. MLH1 and MSH2 proteins were detectable even without PHA stimulation. Analysis of fresh lymphocytes (PHA treated) from a cohort of patients (N > 50 subjects) at high risk for LS, showed a bimodal distribution of MMR ratios (see histogram in Figure 3). The ratios ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 and peaks (mean ± SDE) were at 0.97 ± 0.02 and 0.81 ± 0.08. Stratification this website of results (shown as a scatter plot in Figure 3) shows that the MLH1 protein level is substantially reduced (“”plus”" symbols) in some fresh lymphocyte samples and MSH2 is reduced (“”diamond”" symbols) in other samples. In contrast, analysis of PHA stimulated fresh lymphocytes from normal controls revealed an MMR ratio close to 1.0 (Table 2). Analysis of normal controls and SW480 cells shows that the assay is highly reproducible (overall mean ± SDE = 0.96 ± 0.03). A bimodal distribution was not seen for normal healthy control subjects. Figure 3 DNA mismatch repair protein

ratios for fresh lymphocyte samples from a population of individuals that were at high risk for having a germline MMR mutation. The left panel shows a scatter plot of MMR ratios. The “”+”" signs Crenolanib mw represent ratios where MLH1 was less than MLH2. The diamonds represent ratios Liothyronine Sodium where MSH2 was less than MLH1. Because these plots were largely superimposable, we pooled them to establish the histogram shown in the right panel. The histogram shows that there is a bimodal distribution of MMR ratios. Moreover, the proportion of cases in the smaller mode (left most curve in right panel) is ~28%, which is very close to the proportion of patients (25%) at our recruitment site that have historically proved

to have a germline MMR mutation. Table 2 Reproducibility of the Western Blotting Assay* Cells Mean ± SDE SW480 0.989 ± 0.006 WBC Control 1 0.980 ± 0.018 WBC Control 2 0.967 ± 0.031 WBC Control 3 0.954 ± 0.059 WBC Control 4 0.921 ± 0.074 * Mean and standard deviation from MMR protein ratios determined from three different experiments on fresh WBCs from 4 control cases as well as SW480 colon cancer cells used as an internal control. Discussion A main finding of this study is that levels of MMR proteins can readily be measured in lymphocytes from fresh blood samples if the lymphocytes are first stimulated to proliferate by PHA. This supports our idea that a practical immunoassay for MMR proteins can be developed and used to screen for patients affected with the LS trait before they develop cancer.

Of these, mba30bp was found attached to the conserved domain of t

Of these, mba30bp was found attached to the conserved domain of the MBA and is the equivalent of the active TRU in UUR4. The same TRU was also present in the mba loci of UUR12 and UUR13. Isolate 2608 contained 3 Selleckchem AG-881 identifiable TRUs (mba24bp.1, mba267bp, and mba330bp). The conserved domain was found attached to mba24bp.1, as in UUR5; this TRU was also present in UUR2 and UUR8. Clinical isolate 4318 selleck compound had 3 identifiable TRUs (mba24bp.1, mba276bp, and mba333bp). The conserved

domain was attached to mba24bp.1. Isolate 4155 had 5 identifiable TRUs (mba24bp.1, mba45bp, mba213bp.2, mba252bp.1, and mba276bp). The conserved domain was attached to mba276bp; this TRU had not been previously seen attached to a conserved domain in any of the 14 ATCC type strains, including the clinical UPA3 described by Glass et al. [25]. This is a further confirmation that the TRUs found in the mba locus are part of this phase variable system, which trough recombination should be capable to present on the surface of the ureaplasma cell different TRUs at different times. It would be interesting to investigate whether some TRUs

are more immunogenic selleckchem than others and therefore may contribute to differential pathogenicity. As mentioned earlier the mba variable domain has been used as one of the determinants of serovar classification. It is interesting to note that serovars 4 and 12, which have an identical set of MBA genes, have a percent difference at the nucleotide level in a whole genome comparison (Table 

3) of only 0.06 or 0.07% (value depends on which genome is used as reference sequence), making these serovars almost identical, with the exception of some minor rearrangements and small insertion/deletion events (see Additional file 2: Figure S5). In addition, we observed two chimeric U. parvum strains in a clinical isolate that had exchanged through horizontal gene transfer their mba genes [26]. Taken together, these observation suggest that the mba locus is dynamic and can comprise of a different set of variable domains at different times, therefore making this gene an unsuitable target for serovar differentiation. Conclusions Ureaplasmas have been associated with many different clinical outcomes; however, they have been detected also in healthy individuals. Due to their differential pathogenicity, effort Vildagliptin has gone into assignment of patient isolates into serovars and attempting to correlate specific serovars with specific clinical outcomes. Analysis of ureaplasma samples obtained from patients in the 1970s identified 14 different serovars based on patient and animal antiserum reactions. The expanded serotyping scheme developed by Robertson and Stemke in 1979 is based on antiserum generated by injecting rabbits with emulsified preparations of cell suspensions of each strain separately [59]. Studies were not done at this time to determine the antigen that the sera antibodies were recognizing. In a later study, Watson et al.

Bibliography 1 Walker RG, et al Clin Nephrol 1990;34:103–7 (L

Bibliography 1. CB-839 Walker RG, et al. Clin Nephrol. 1990;34:103–7. (Level 2)   2. Ballardie FW, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:142–8. (Level 2)   3. Pozzi C, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1783–90. (Level 2)   4.

Harmankaya O, et al. Int Urol Nephrol. 2002;33:167–71. (Level 2)   5. Lai KN, et al. BMJ. 1987;295:1165–8. (Level 2)   6. Frisch G, et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:2139–45. (Level 2)   7. Tang S, et al. Kidney Int. 2005;68:802–12. (Level 2)   8. Maes BD, et al. Kidney Int. 2004;65:1842–9. (Level 2)   9. Xu G, et al. Am J Nephrol. 2009;29:362–7. (Level 1)   10. Xie Y, et al. Am J Med Sci. 2011;341:367–72. (Level 2)   Chapter 11: Nephrotic syndrome Is cancer screening recommended for patients with membranous nephropathy?

selleck chemical Cancer is one of the leading causes of secondary membranous nephropathy. selleck In western countries, about 7–10 % of patients with membranous nephropathy have been complicated with cancer. In Japan, however, the renal biopsy registry shows that less than 1.0 % of membranous nephropathy patients have been complicated with cancer, especially with only two cases with solid tumors. From these data, the complication rate for cancer in Japanese patients with membranous nephropathy is lower than that of western countries. It remains unclear whether the cancer is more complex in patients with membranous nephropathy than in the general population in Japan. Further study is needed to reveal the relationship between membranous nephropathy and cancer. Bibliography 1. Burstein DM, et al. Am J Kidney Dis. 1993;22:5–10. (Level 4)   2. Lefaucheur C, et al. Kidney Int.

2006;70:1510–7. (Level 4)   3. Bjorneklett R, et al. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;50:396–403. (Level 4)   4. Zeng CH, et al. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;52:691–8. (Level 4)   5. Yokoyama H, et al. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012;16:557–63. (Level Cell press 4)   Is cyclophosphamide with corticosteroid recommended for the treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy? Meta-analysis of 18 RCTs including 1,025 cases published in 2004, confirmed that alkylating agents were more effective for the initial treatment of nephrotic membranous nephropathy than placebo or corticosteroid alone. Jha et al. showed that cyclophosphamide combined with corticosteroid significantly induced remission and suppressed the progression of renal dysfunction in membranous nephropathy. In addition, a prospective study of 103 patients with nephrotic membranous nephropathy showed significant efficacy of treatment using cyclophosphamide combined with corticosteroid compared with a historical control. In Japan, corticosteroid alone is recommended for the initial treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy in the Guidelines for the Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome published in 2011 based on the data from a large cohort study of Japanese population.

Spontaneous migration was not significantly different between con

Spontaneous migration was not significantly different between control and transformed cells. After addition of CXCL12, the migration speed of control, non-transformed JNK-IN-8 research buy cells increased to reach a maximum within 2 hours,

and returned to baseline eFT508 nmr values after 4 hours. In cells tranformed with the N17 mutant, the stimulation of cell migration by CXCL12 was more intense than in control cells (p < 0.001) and was still observable after 5 hours. Flow cytometry analysis showed that modifications in Rac1 expression or activity did not significantly affect cell surface expression of the integrins VLA-4 and VLA-5, which are involved in Nalm-6 cells migratory process on fibronectin. However, selleck kinase inhibitor the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 was up-regulated (+93%) at the surface of cells overexpressing Rac1, an effect that was prevented by a 24-hour treatment with the Rac inhibitor NSC23766. Taken together, these results suggest

that Rac1 plays an important regulatory role in the response of B-ALL cells to the chemoattractant cytokine CXCL12, and thus may control mechanisms involved in leukemic cell dissemination. Poster No. 9 Down-Expression of RB18A/MED1, a Co-Factor of Transcription, Regulates Modifications of the Tumor Microenvironment to Trigger Strong Tumorigenic Phenotype of Human Melanoma Cells Raymond Frade 1 1 INSERM U.672 (former U.354), Immunochemistry of Cell Regulations and Virus Interactions, Evry, Ile-de-France, France The human gene RB18A/MED1, also named TRAP220 or DRIP205, encodes for a single 205 kDa co-factor of transcription that interacts with nuclear receptors and transcription factors essential for cell growth. We originally identified this human gene and demonstrated that RB18A/MED1 is antigenically and functionally related to p53. In addition, RB18A/MED1 chromosome localization on locus 17q12-q21.1 suggested its involvement in human cancers. Cytidine deaminase Since, others described over expression of RB18A/MED1 in breast, colon and prostate cancers. We herein analyzed RB18A/MED1

expression in human melanoma cells. We found that RB18A/MED1 is either highly or weakly expressed in melanoma cells, depending on their respectively non or highly-tumorigenic phenotype. Therefore, we analyzed whether a relationship could exist between RB18A/MED1 expression and melanoma cell phenotype. For this purpose, we down-regulated RB18A/MED1 expression by transfecting melanoma cells with a RB18A/MED1 siRNA specific for the 3′-untranslated region of native RB18A/MED1 RNA, already demonstrated to inhibit specifically RB18A/MED1 protein expression. A non-specific (scramble) siRNA was used as control. The specificity of this RB18A/MED1 siRNA was also supported as, in transfected cells, lamin A/C expression or cathepsin L and MMP2 expression and secretion were not modified.

Wu ZJ, Song CF, Guo J, Yu BJ, Qian LM: A multi-probe micro-fabric

Wu ZJ, Song CF, Guo J, Yu BJ, Qian LM: A multi-probe micro-fabrication apparatus based on the friction-induced fabrication method. Front Mech Eng 2013,8(4):333–339.CrossRef 16. Hendrickson J, Helfrich M, Gehl M, Hu D, Schaadt D, Linden S, Wegener M, Richards B, Gibbs H, Khitrova G: InAs quantum dot site-selective growth on GaAs substrates. Phys Status Solidi C 2011, 8:1242–1245.CrossRef 17. Song CF, Li XY, Yu BJ, Dong HS, Qian LM, Zhou ZR:

Friction-induced nanofabrication method to produce protrusive nanostructures on quartz. Nanoscale Res Lett 2011, 6:310.CrossRef 18. Fang TH, Chang WJ, Lin CM: Nanoindentation and nanoscratch characteristics of Si and GaAs. Microelectron Eng 2005, 77:389–398.CrossRef 19. Taylor CR, Malshe AP, Salamo G, Prince RN, Riester L, Cho SO: Characterization of ultra-low-load (μN) nanoindents in GaAs (100) using a cube corner tip. Smart Mater Struct 2005, 14:963–970.CrossRef 20. Sung IH, Yang JC, Kim DE, Shin BS: Micro/nano-tribological characteristics Pictilisib in vivo of self-assembled monolayer and its application in nano-structure fabrication. Wear 2003, 255:808–818.CrossRef 21. Song CF, Li XY, Yu BJ, Dong HS, Qian LM, Zhou ZR: Maskless and low-destructive nanofabrication on quartz by friction-induced selective etching. Nanoscale Res Lett 2013,

8:140.CrossRef 22. Guo J, Song CF, Li XY, Yu BJ, Dong HS, Qian LM, Zhou ZR: Fabrication mechanism of friction-induced selective etching on Si (100) surface. Nanoscale Res Lett 2012, 7:152.CrossRef 23. Suedu-Bob CC, Saied SO, Sullivan JL: A X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the oxides of GaAs. Appl Surf Sci 2006, 183:126–136.CrossRef 24. Ghidaoui D, Lyon SB, Thompson GE, Walton J: Oxide formation during etching of gallium arsenide. Corrosion Sci 2002, 44:501–509.CrossRef 25. Zardo I, Yazji S, Marini C, Uccelli E, Morral AF, Abstreiter G, Postorino P: Pressure tuning of the optical properties of GaAs nanowires. ACS Nano 2012,6(4):3284–3291.CrossRef 26. Gotoshia

SV, Gotoshia LV: Laser Raman spectroscopy of phase transformation in GaAs induced by radiation defects. Phys Status Solidi C 2013, 4:646–649.CrossRef 27. Pizani PS, Lanciotti F, Jasinevicius RG, Duduch JG, Porto AJV: Raman characterization of structural disorder and residual strains in micromachined GaAs. J Appl Phys 2000, 87:1280.CrossRef 28. Attolini G, Francesio L, Franzosi P, Pelosi C, MLN8237 supplier Gennari S, Thymidylate synthase Lottici PP: Raman scattering study of residual strain in GaAs/InP heterostructures. J Appl Phys 1994, 75:4156.CrossRef 29. Champagnon B, Martinet C, Boudeulle M, Vouagner D, Coussa C, Deschamps T, Grosvalet L: High pressure elastic and plastic deformations of silica: In situ diamond anvil cell Raman experiments. J Non-Cryst Solids 2008, 254:569–573.CrossRef 30. Kiravittaya S, Heidemeyer H, Schmidt OG: Growth of three-dimensional quantum dot crystals on patterned GaAs (001) substrates. Phys E 2004, 23:253–259.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

These ecological and reproductive differences which lead to genet

These ecological and reproductive differences which lead to genetic diversity make Francisella

an ideal choice for evaluation of diagnostic PCR-based DNA markers and developing sample RGFP966 chemical structure sequencing methods for phylogenetic analyses. Over the last decade, PCR methods have been successfully applied for the rapid identification selleck chemical and classification of Francisella isolates [8]. An obvious drawback with DNA-based approaches is the possibility of cross-reactivity with non-pathogenic but closely related Francisella subspecies occurring naturally in the environment [3, 9, 10]. This could distract biological surveillance systems, such as the BioWatch Program [11], and give false-positive alarms Selleckchem PLX-4720 [12, 13]. Therefore, primer pairs need to be defined so that an unknown isolate is identified and attributed to the correct species or subspecies. Previously published sequence markers designed for identification or detection of Francisella have been developed without taking into consideration the current knowledge of genetic diversity

of the genus, in particular the recently discovered species F. noatunensis and F. hispaniensis. The specificity of Francisella detection assays has often been controlled by testing reactivity with non-Francisella bacterial species. Typically, no other species besides F. tularensis (including subspecies tularensis, mediasiatica and holarctica), F. novicida and F. philomiragia have been included as representatives of the Francisella genus [14–17]. As with PCR detection, current knowledge on the diversity of the Francisella genus affects the choice of genetic markers used for obtaining true phylogenetic trees by PCR-based

sequence-typing analysis. For F. tularensis, multi-locus typing schemes targeting overlapping, as well as separate, genes have been described [18, 19]. However, the resolution was limited, allowing discrimination of only the major genetic clades of the species. Recent advances in sequencing and the increased availability of publicly accessible genomic sequences have enabled phylogenetic trees obtained Liothyronine Sodium by analysing sequence markers to be evaluated. Whole-genome sequencing is not always desirable for large bacterial sample sets, as such analysis normally generates large amount of data which requires substantial increase in labour and time. Therefore, multiplexed target amplification of selected genomic regions using next generation sequencing (NGS) have recently been proposed [20, 21]. A considerable effort in the study of bacterial pathogens has been devoted to evaluating alternative evolutionary histories by comparing topologies [22–25]. In order to facilitate these comparisons, various topological distance metrics have been proposed, such as the Robinson-Foulds (RF) or symmetric distance [26], branch-score distance [27], path-length metrics [28] and nearest-neighbour interchanging [29].