Methods In June 2012 we used NVivo 10 to collect all tweets ever

Methods In June 2012 we used NVivo 10 to collect all tweets ever posted from every LHD with a Twitter account and identified tweets about diabetes. We used a 2010 National Association of County and City Health Officials survey to compare

characteristics of LHDs that tweeted about diabetes with those that did not. Content analysis was used to classify each tweet topic. Results Of 217 LHDs with Twitter accounts, 1 26 had ever tweeted about diabetes, with 3 diabetes tweets being the median since adopting Twitter. LHDs tweeting about diabetes were in jurisdictions with larger populations and had more staff and higher spending Selleck BLZ945 than LHDs not tweeting about diabetes. They were significantly more likely to employ a public information specialist and provide programs in diabetes-related areas. There was also a weak positive association between jurisdiction diabetes rate and the

percentage of all tweets that were about diabetes (r = .16; P = .049). Conclusion LHDs are beginning to use social media to educate and inform their constituents about diabetes. An understanding of the reach and effectiveness of social media could enable public health practitioners to use them more effectively.”
“Background: Cause-of-death data linked to information on socioeconomic position form one of the most important sources of information about health inequalities in many countries. The proportion of deaths from ill-defined conditions is one of Selleck JNK-IN-8 the

indicators of the quality of cause-of-death data. We investigated educational differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in official mortality statistics. Methods: Using age-standardized mortality rates from 16 European countries, we calculated the proportion of all deaths in each educational group that were classified as due to “Symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions”. We tested if this proportion differed across educational groups using Chi-square tests. Results: The proportion of ill-defined causes of death was lower than 6.5% among men and 4.5% among women in all European countries, without any clear geographical pattern. click here This proportion statistically significantly differed by educational groups in several countries with in most cases a higher proportion among less than secondary educated people compared with tertiary educated people. Conclusions: We found evidence for educational differences in the distribution of ill-defined causes of death. However, the differences between educational groups were small suggesting that socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific mortality in Europe are not likely to be biased.”
“Cardiac cell therapies involving bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have shown promising results, although their mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated direct interactions between hMSCs and cardiomyocytes in vitro.

The genetic difference between the Czech and the Norwegian materi

The genetic difference between the Czech and the Norwegian material were highly significant (P smaller than 0.0001). For several trees the sampled genotypes gave evidence that more than two parents were responsible for the

breeding. These microsatellite loci should prove useful in the study of population structure including mate and dispersal patterns for this C59 Wnt purchase species.”
“Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disorder, which remains the leading cause of chronic disability in aged people. This study is the first report which demonstrates the cartilage protective effect of 5,7,3′,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF) by decreasing the concentration of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and PGE(2) in the knee synovial fluid in OA rat models in vivo. In vitro, after induced by PGE(2), the apoptosis rate of chondrocytes was significantly increased. In addition, PGE(2) increased the expression of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in chondrocytes, stabilized and accumulated beta-catenin, and

activated the expression of beta-catenin signaling pathway. These activities were counteracted by TMF dose-dependently. Collectively, TMF is a potential compound with chondroprotective activity by inhibiting both EP/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and beta-catenin Smoothened Agonist supplier signaling pathway. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In the recent past, several phytoconstituents are being explored for their potential neuromodulatory effects in neurological diseases. Repeated exposure of acrylamide (ACR) leads to varying degree of neuronal damage in experimental animals and humans. In view of this, the present study investigated the efficacy of geraniol (GE, a natural monoterpene) to mitigate acrylamide (ACR)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity in a rat model and compared its efficacy to that of curcumin (CU, a spice active principle with multiple biological activities). ACR administration (50 mg/kg bw, i.p. 3 times/week) for 4 weeks to growing rats caused typical symptoms of neuropathy. ACR JNJ-26481585 rats provided

with daily oral supplements of phytoconstituents (GE: 100 mg/kg bw/d; CU: 50 mg/kg bw/d, 4 weeks) exhibited marked improvement in behavioral tests. Both phytoconstituents markedly attenuated ACR-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by the diminished levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide and restored the reduced glutathione levels in sciatic nerve (SN) and brain regions (cortex – Ct, cerebellum – Cb). Further, both phytoconstituents effectively diminished ACR-induced elevation in cytosolic calcium levels in SN and Cb. Furthermore, diminution in the levels of oxidative markers in the mitochondria was associated with elevation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

Four out of 11 species of Ganoderma showed good antimicrobial act

Four out of 11 species of Ganoderma showed good antimicrobial activity. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined for the sesquterpenoid extract of Ganoderma Mazandaran Ganoderma lipsiense, Ganoderma multicornum and Ganoderma lucidum on selected microorganisms.

selleck chemicals Proteus mirabilis (MTCC 1429) Candida albicans (MTCC 1637), Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC 432), Escherichia coli (MTCC 2064) and bacillus subtilus (NCIM 2010) were tested. Ganoderma lucidum extract showed maximal inhibition of Proteus mirabilis and was also active against Candida albicans, as was the extract of Ganoderma mazandaran. Lowest MIC values were 128. l/ ml demonstrated by sesquterpenoid extract of G. lucidium, and G. Mazandaran against B. subtilus and P. mirabilis. Further separation of the sesquterpenoid compounds need to be carried out to detect the bioactivity of specific compounds. [Asghar.Sharifi, Seyed Sajjad Khoramrooz, Soheyla Jahedi, Seyed Abdolmajid Khosravani. Screening Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Sesquterpenoid Crude Extract Of Ganoderma. Life Sci J 2012; 9(4): 2516-2519] (ISSN:1097-8135). learn more 372″
“Recent advances concerning genetic manipulation provide new perspectives regarding the improvement

of the physiological responses in herbaceous and woody plants to abiotic stresses. The beneficial or negative effects of these manipulations on plant physiology are discussed, underlining the role of aquaporin isoforms as representative markers of water uptake and whole plant water status. Increasing water use efficiency and the promotion of plant water retention seem to be critical

goals in the improvement of plant tolerance to abiotic stress. However, newly uncovered mechanisms, such as aquaporin functions and regulation, may be essential for the beneficial effects seen in plants overexpressing aquaporin genes. Under distinct stress conditions, differences in the phenotype of transgenic plants where aquaporins were manipulated need to be analyzed. In the development of nano-technologies for agricultural practices, multiple-walled carbon nanotubes promoted plant germination and cell growth. Their effects on aquaporins need further investigation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The galls induced by Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, are very diverse, with conspicuous evidence of tissue manipulation by the galling herbivores. Bud galls, as those induced by an unidentified Cecidomyiidae species on Marcetia taxifolia, Melastomataceae, can be considered as one of the most complex type of prosoplasma galls. The gall-inducer manipulate the axillary meristem of the plant in a way that gall morphogenesis may present both vegetative and reproductive features of the host plant. Herein, we analyzed traces of determinate and indeterminate growth in the bud gall of M. taxifolia, looking for parallels between the features,of the leaves and flowers, natural fates of the meristematic cells.

cunea was remarkably different (P = 0 007) month by month, with t

cunea was remarkably different (P = 0.007) month by month, with the maximum in March (2.88 mg.mL(-1)) and the minimum (0.40 mg.mL(-1)) in November. Pearson’s correlation test indicated that SCP had a significant negative correlation with the SOD enzyme

activity (R = 0.850; P = 0.008). Thermal hysteresis activity (THA) of hemolymph was 0.68 degrees C and 0.7-0.8 degrees C for H. cunea pupae and larva, respectively, using differential scanning calorimetry, which suggests that the H. cunea can improve their cold tolerance through producing antifreeze proteins. These results could help us to predict the distribution of the H. cunea in the northeast of China. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan AS1842856 mouse Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background. The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) has found that the proportional elevation in the US Army enlisted soldier suicide

rate during deployment (compared with the never-deployed or previously deployed) is significantly higher among women than men, raising the possibility of gender differences in the adverse psychological effects of deployment. Method. Person-month survival models based on a consolidated administrative database for active duty enlisted Regular Army soldiers in 2004-2009 (n = 975 057) were used to characterize the gender x deployment interaction predicting suicide. Selleckchem Buparlisib Four explanatory hypotheses were explored involving the proportion of females in each soldier’s

occupation, the proportion of same-gender soldiers in each soldier’s unit, whether the soldier reported sexual assault victimization in the previous 12 months, and the soldier’s pre-deployment history of treated mental/behavioral disorders. Results. The suicide rate of currently deployed women (14.0/100 000 person-years) was 3.1-3.5 times the rates of other (i.e. never-deployed/previously deployed) women. The suicide rate of currently deployed men (22.6/100 000 personyears) was 0.9-1.2 times the rates of other men. The adjusted (for time trends, sociodemographics, and Army career variables) female: male odds ratio comparing the suicide rates of currently deployed v. other women v. men was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-6.8), became 2.4 after excluding soldiers Selleck CYT387 with Direct Combat Arms occupations, and remained elevated (in the range 1.9-2.8) after adjusting for the hypothesized explanatory variables. Conclusions. These results are valuable in excluding otherwise plausible hypotheses for the elevated suicide rate of deployed women and point to the importance of expanding future research on the psychological challenges of deployment for women.”
“Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) permits neural crest cells to delaminate from the epithelial ectoderm and to migrate extensively in the embryonic environment.

“Around Bursa and Uludag is a wide range of native woody p

“Around Bursa and Uludag is a wide range of native woody plants of which are commonly used for landscape planning. The present study pointed out a total of 72 plant species, consisting of 36 trees, 32 shrubs, 7 treelets and 4 climber groups, around the region which are notified to be suitable for rural and urban planning with the intentions of solitary, group,

alley, C188-9 inhibitor wind-break, ground cover and attractive flowering and fruit.”
“In Mexico, native orchids are appreciated for their ornamental value and traditional uses and in many indigenous communities they comprise part of a biocultural heritage. The orchid Prosthechea karwinskii(Mart.) J.M.H. Shaw, Orchidaceae, is particularly relevant in this context, although some of its traditional uses have been attributed to a very similar species, P.

citrina. A recent study of p. karwinskii reported unknown medicinal and other traditional uses by the Mixtec community in Mexico. Unfortunately, increasing acculturation, of indigenous communities has resulted in a loss of the community’s traditional knowledge, thus we herein documented the worldview and Practices GSK1210151A datasheet associated with the Medicinal use of P. karwinskii as well as the socioeconomic aspects that, characterize the holders of this knowledge. People with this knowledge are mainly indigenous women with little or no schooling, who learned the medicinal practices from family tradition. They use pseudobulbs, leaves, or flowers of the plant to treat coughs (infusions), wounds and burns (poultices), diabetes (tea or chewed), to prevent miscarriages and to assist in childbirth (infusions). These resultS show a promising future for ethnopharmacological research on P. karwinskii. (C) 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda: All rights reserved.”
“Natural genetic variation is crucial for adaptability of plants to different environments. Seed dormancy prevents precocious germination

in unsuitable conditions and is an adaptation to a major macro-environmental parameter, the seasonal variation in temperature and day length. Here we report the isolation of IBO, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) buy Autophagy Compound Library that governs c. 30% of germination rate variance in an Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the parental accessions Eilenburg-0 (Eil-0) and Loch Ness-0 (Lc-0).IBO encodes an uncharacterized phosphatase 2C-related protein, but neither the Eil-0 nor the Lc-0 variant, which differ in a single amino acid, have any appreciable phosphatase activity in in vitro assays. However, we found that the amino acid change in the Lc-0 variant of the IBO protein confers reduced germination rate. Moreover, unlike the Eil-0 variant of the protein, the Lc-0 variant can interfere with the activity of the phosphatase 2C ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 1 in vitro. This suggests that the Lc-0 variant possibly interferes with abscisic acid signaling, a notion that is supported by physiological assays.

“Objective-To examine the association between liver fat co

“Objective-To examine the association between liver fat content and very low-density selleckchem lipoprotein (VLDL)-apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 kinetics and the corresponding responses to weight loss in obese subjects.\n\nMethods and Results-VLDL-apoB-100 kinetics were assessed using stable isotope tracers, and the fat content of the liver and abdomen was determined by magnetic resonance techniques in 25 obese subjects. In univariate analysis, liver fat content was significantly (P < 0.05 in all) associated with body mass index (r = 0.65), visceral fat area (r = 0.45), triglycerides (r = 0.40), homeostasis model assessment score (r = 0.40), VLDL-apoB-100 concentrations (r = 0.44),

and secretion rate (r = 0.45). However, liver fat content was not associated with plasma concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4, fetuin A, adiponectin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Of these 25 subjects, 9 diagnosed as having

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (which is highly prevalent in obese individuals and strongly associated with dyslipidemia) underwent a weight loss program. The low-fat diet achieved significant reduction in body weight, body mass index, liver fat, visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, homeostasis model assessment score, triglycerides, VLDL-apoB-100 concentrations, and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion rate. The percentage reduction of liver fat with weight loss was significantly associated with the corresponding decreases in VLDL-apoB-100 secretion (r = 0.67) and visceral fat (r = 0.84).\n\nConclusion-In patients with obesity, hepatic steatosis increases VLDL-apoB-100 Selisistat secretion. Weight loss can help reduce this abnormality. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1043-1050.)”
“Benzotriazole derivatives have been shown to be able to induce growth inhibition in cancer cells. In the present study, we synthesized bioactive

compound, 3-(1H-benzo [d] [1,2,3] triazol-1-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl benzoate (BmOB), which is a novel benzotriazole derivative. BmOB displayed anti-proliferative effects on several human tumor cell lines. Human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 cell line was selected as a model to illustrate BmOB’s inhibition effect and its potential mechanism, since it was the highest susceptible cell line to BmOB. It was shown that treatment with BmOB resulted in generation of reactive oxygen species, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi m), and cell death in BEL-7402 cells. BmOB induced cytotoxicity could be prevented by antioxidant vitamin C and mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor cyclosporine A. cyclosporine A could also protect the BmOB induced collapse of Delta psi m in BEL7402 cells, while vitamin C did not show similar effects. The results suggest that BmOB could inhibit BEL-7402 cell proliferation, and the cell death may occur through the modulation of mitochondrial functions regulated by reactive oxygen species.

The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative dig

The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative digital image analysis of pancreatic adenocarcinomas using conventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and CEH-EUS and the evaluation of whether contrast medium injection modified adenocarcinoma staging and patient management.\n\nMaterials and Methods: In each of 30 prospectively examined patients with suspected pancreatic solid lesions, CEH-EUS was performed using the same quantity of the contrast agent SonoVue and a low mechanical index (0.3 – 0.4), followed by EUS-FNA. PXD101 in vitro The histology, based on EUS-FNA or surgery and 9 months of follow-up, was:

pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 15), pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis (n = 12), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1), common bile duct tumor (n = 1), lymph node metastases of gastric cancer (n = 1). The quantitative analysis was based on histograms obtained from each CEH-EUS video recording.\n\nResults: CEH-EUS showed a hypoenhanced pattern in 14 cases of adenocarcinoma and in 10 cases of chronic pancreatitis. ARRY-142886 The index of the contrast uptake ratio was significantly lower in adenocarcinoma than in mass-forming chronic pancreatitis. A cut-off uptake ratio index value of 0.17 for diagnosing adenocarcinoma corresponded to an AUC (CI 95%) of 0.86 (0.67 – 1.00) with a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 91.7%, a positive predictive value of 92.8%,

and a negative predictive value of 78%. The size of the pancreatic mass was assessed significantly more effectively by CEH-EUS but adenocarcinoma staging was not modified.\n\nConclusion: The majority of cases of both pancreatic adenocarcinoma Buparlisib mw and chronic pancreatitis were hypoenhanced and visual discrimination was not possible. This is the first study about CEH-EUS for the quantitative assessment of uptake after contrast injection which has shown that it can aid differentiation between

benign and malignant masses but cannot replace EUS-FNA. Neither tumor stage nor therapeutic management have changed after contrast medium injection during CEH-EUS.”
“The influence of the band structure, especially the bandwidth, on the scattered ion yield spectra of a He+ ion by the resonant or quasi-resonant neutralization was theoretically examined using quantum rate equations. When calculating the scattered ion yield spectra of He+ to simulate the experimental data, we observed that the band structure, especially the bandwidth, had a strong influence on the spectra at relatively low incident He+ ion energies of less than several hundred eV. Through many simulations, it was determined that theoretical calculations that include bandwidth calculation can simulate or reproduce the experimentally observed spectra of He+-In, He+-Ga, and He+-Sn systems. In contrast, simulations not including bandwidth simulation could neither reproduce nor account for such spectra.

Catch-up vaccination of foreign children has to be adapted to Fre

Catch-up vaccination of foreign children has to be adapted to French vaccine recommendations, as a reference, and to vaccines already administered to the child. (c) 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“This article is aimed to discuss the modification of guar gum through microwave irradiation by varying the time of irradiation. The characterization of the modified products was carried out JPH203 cell line using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The FT-IR spectrum of the pure guar gum (GG) sample showed a broad peak at 3298 cm(-1) while the modified GG sample displayed a peak at 1541 cm(-1) which was absent in the crude sample. The X-ray diffraction

(XRD) analysis confirmed the increase in crystallinity due to grafting of the sample with polyacrylamide (GG-g-PAM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that granular form of guar gum was changed

into fibrillar structure after grafting. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the modified samples was also carried out and discussed. The role of guar gum as a matrix for controlled release of drug triamcinolone was evaluated. The GG-acrylamide grafted samples presented a correlation between drug release and time of microwave exposure. The results revealed that such modified product has potential applications in colonic drug delivery system. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Artificial selleck chemical corneas or keratoprostheses (KPros) are designed to replace diseased or damaged cornea. Although many synthetic KPros have been developed, current products are often inappropriate or inadequate for long term use due to ineffective host integration. This study presents an alternative approach of engineering a KPro that comprises a combination of poly (2-hydroxyethyl

methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and sodium chloride (NaCl) as porogen. Based on the core-skirt model for KPro, the porous outer portion of artificial cornea (skirt) was engineered by combining NaCl with HEMA and MMA monomers to promote tissue ingrowth from the host. The central optic (core) was designed to provide bigger than 85% light transmission in the visible wavelength range and securely attached to the skirt. Mechanical tensile data indicated that our KPro (referred GSK690693 mw to as salt porogen KPro) is mechanically stable to maintain its structure in the ocular environment and during implantation. Using human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs), we demonstrate that the cells grew into the pores of the skirt and proliferated, suggesting biointegration is adequately achieved. This novel PHEMA-PMMA copolymeric salt porogen KPro may offer a cornea replacement option that leads to minimal risk of corneal melting by permitting sufficient tissue ingrowth and mass transport. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 1799-1808, 2014.

VWF secretion is likely to vary between vascular beds, with brain

VWF secretion is likely to vary between vascular beds, with brain endothelial cells being particularly sensitive. These results suggest that clinical management of cocaine-induced ischemia may NCT-501 supplier benefit from therapies aimed at disrupting the VWF-platelet interaction.”
“Background Psoriasis is a Th1 immune-mediated, inflammatory disease, in which skin lesions appear many years before the related metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities,

according to the theory of the ‘psoriatic march’. Inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are directly implicated in determining both skin lesions and systemic involvement in psoriasis. Reactive oxygen species actively promote the secretion of inflammatory Th1 cytokines directly involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.\n\nObjectives Evaluation of VEGF expression and production, nitric oxide (NO) production, iNOS expression, and the antioxidant response of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), both before and after 12 weeks of treatment with the TNF-alpha inhibitors adalimumab or etanercept.\n\nMethods Biochemical, morphological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in MSCs isolated from nonlesional, perilesional and lesional skin of patients with psoriasis, before and after treatment.\n\nResults The treatments were able to

reduce the expression Ulixertinib mouse and production of VEGF, the expression of iNOS and the production of NO in MSCs of patients with psoriasis. TNF-alpha inhibitors also reduced the oxidative damage in MSC membrane

and proteins, several antioxidant systems responded to treatments with a general inhibition of activities (glutathione S-transferase and catalase) and these effects were also supported by a general decrease of total oxyradical scavenging capacity towards hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite.\n\nConclusions TNF-alpha inhibitors are able to change the physiopathological pathway of psoriasis, and our results suggest their therapeutic effects already take place at the level of MSCs, which probably represent the cells primarily AZD6094 mouse involved in the ‘psoriatic march’.”
“We investigated potential therapeutic effects of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators FTY720 (fingolimod) and selective S1P1 agonist SEW2871 on a spontaneous autoimmune polyneuropathy (SAP) when given orally at 7 mo (anticipated disease onset) for 4 weeks. Clinical severity, electrophysiologic and histological findings were ameliorated in mice treated with 1 mg/kg of FTY720. Subsequent studies showed that SEW2871 was also effective in halting the progression of SAP, which was accompanied by decreased proliferative and cytokine responses to myelin protein zero (P0), and an increase in regulatory T cells. We conclude that SIP receptor modulators may play a therapeutic role in autoimmune neuropathies.

Conclusions: High prevalence of persistent arthralgia indicates t

Conclusions: High prevalence of persistent arthralgia indicates the need for appropriate treatment strategies to reduce the severity and duration of joint pain.”
“Spider monkeys (Ateles sp.) live in a flexible fission-fusion social system in which members of a social group are not in constant association, but instead form smaller subgroups of varying size and composition. Patterns of range use in spider monkeys have been described as sex-segregated, with males and females often ranging separately, females utilizing core areas that encompass only a fraction of the entire community range, and males using much larger portions of the community range that overlap

considerably with the core areas of females and other males. Males are 3-Methyladenine datasheet also reported to use the boundary areas Liproxstatin-1 supplier of community home ranges more often than females. Spider monkeys thus seem to parallel the “male-bonded” patterns of ranging and association found among some groups of chimpanzees. Over several years of research on one group of spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador, we characterized the ranging patterns of adult males and females and evaluated the extent to which they conform to previously reported patterns. In contrast to ranging patterns seen at several other spider monkey sites, the ranges of our study females overlapped considerably,

buy BKM120 with little evidence of exclusive use of particular areas by individual monkeys. Average male and female home range size was comparable, and males and females were similar in their use of boundary areas. These ranging patterns are similar to those of “bisexually bonded” groups of chimpanzees

in West Africa. We suggest that the less sex-segregated ranging patterns seen in this particular group of spider monkeys may be owing to a history of human disturbance in the area and to lower genetic relatedness between males, highlighting the potential for flexibility some aspects of the spider monkeys’ fission-fusion social system. Am. J. Primatol. 72:129-141, 2010. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease of tropical and semi-tropical areas of the world. The current study is carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qom province during 2007-2009.\n\nMethods: The study was performed on patients referred to nine health centers in Qom province. The patients were included in the study by random sampling. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed during 2007-2009. Diagnosis of the disease was based upon the clinical examination and specimens taken from wound serosity, which then underwent Giemsa staining. The demographic data and results of clinical and laboratory evaluations were recorded in patients’ datasheet.