A global positioning scheme which consists of the local position

A global positioning scheme which consists of the local positioning method, the simple correction algorithm, the three-dimensional transformation algorithm and position prediction algorithm in blind areas is proposed to obtain real-time global positioning information for the miners.The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we describe the architecture and deployment scenario of MPPS. In Section 3, the data models of global positioning systems are studied. In Section 4, we introduce the global positioning scheme. In Section 5, we analyze the prototype system and experimental results. A brief overview of related work is introduced in Section 6. Finally, we conclude the paper.2.

?The System Architecture and Deployment Scenario2.1.

The System ArchitectureAs shown in Figure 1, the MPPS architecture is divided into three layers: the field monitoring layer, the upper supervision layer, and the remote supervision layer. The field monitoring layer includes the mobile nodes, the reference nodes, the gateways and the base stations. The communication between the mobile node, the reference node and the gateway is wireless. The mobile nodes continuously receive the reference nodes’ location and RSSI within a one hop coverage area, calculate their own locations based on a locating algorithm, and send them to the gateway through multi-hop routing. The gateway then sends the original location information to the base station through RS-485 bus.

The base station collects the location information of all miners on its own level and sends it to the upper computer after packaging through the controller area network (Controller Area Network: CAN) bus.

Figure 1.Architecture of MPPS.The upper supervision layer includes the upper computer, which is equipped with a CAN bus card in addition to a local area network (Local Area Network: LAN) card. The upper computer can communicate with the base station through the CAN card. The upper computer continuously receives the packets from the base station through the CAN interface, and then processes and visualizes these data packets. Based on the client/server model, the remote Drug_discovery supervision level can also be divided into three layers, namely the database server Brefeldin_A layer, web server layer, and browser layer.

The database server and web server are connected with the upper computer through the LAN bus complying with the TCP/IP protocol. The remote monitoring computers are connected with the web server through the Internet, and are used to monitor a variety of statistical information of MPPS through a browser.2.2. The Deployment ScenarioThe tunnel network partition for a real coal mine [18] is shown in Figure 2.

k mechanism to promote Notch activated transcription and the netw

k mechanism to promote Notch activated transcription and the network analysis suggests that this interaction may be mediated by a direct contact with Notch itself. This study enhances knowledge on the chicken macrophage transcriptional response to endotoxin by elucidating the complex gene networks involved in the chicken inflammatory response and reports the novel involvement of NLRC5. Methods Cell Culture and Stimulation The chicken HD11 macrophage cell line was cul tured in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% heat inactivated newborn calf serum, 2 mM gluta mine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 0. 1 mM non essential amino acids, 100 U ml penicillin, 100 ug ml streptomy cin, 10 mM HEPES and 5 �� 10 5 M 2 mercaptoethanol at 41 C and 5% CO2. Cells were plated in 75 cm2 tissue flasks and cul tures were split every 3 days.

Cell viability was 90% by trypan blue exclusion. Prior to sti mulation with endotoxin dissolved in Phosphate Buffer Saline, cells were cultured at an initial density of 2. 8 x106 cells flask into 25 cm2 tissue flasks and kept overnight in the incubator, then stimulated with 0. 0, 0. 1, Drug_discovery 1. 0, 10. 0 ug ml endotoxin which was isolated from Salmonella typhimurium 798 utilizing the aqueous buta nol 1 extraction procedure as described by Morrison and Leive 1975. Cells were collected at 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after endotoxin stimulation. RNA Isolation, DNase Treatment and QPCR Experiments Total RNA was isolated from pooled samples using RNAquous? accord ing to manufacturers instructions. The mRNA expres sion levels of TLR15, IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL8, and IFNG were determined by quantitative real time RTPCR, using QuantiTect SYBR Green RT PCR.

Each RT PCR reaction was run in triplicate for each sample and consisted of either 50 ng or 75 ng total RNA, 12. 5 ml QuantiTect SYBR Green master mix, 0. 25 ml QuantiTect RT mix, forward and reverse primers, and RNAse free water for a final volume of 25 ml. The QPCR primer sequences have been previously published. The QPCR reactions were performed on an Opticon 2. An initial 50 C step for 30 min was followed by 95 C for 15 min and 40 cycles for all PCR amplifications. Gene slopes were determined with serial dilutions differing by 10 fold. A melting curve from 60 to 90 C with a reading at every 1 C was also performed for each individual RT PCR plate. Adjusted cycle threshold values were calculated as follows, 40 for all genes except IFNG.

The threshold of 40 cycles was raised to 45 cycles for IFNG, because most adjusted cycle numbers were greater than 40. Mean adjusted C values of each triplicate of assays were used in statistical analysis. All RNA samples were DNase treated with DNA Free according to manufacturers instructions before QPCR. The fold changes in mRNA levels were determined as follows, C non stimulated C target gene non stimu lated C 28 s non stimulated. C stimulated C target gene stimulated C 28 s stimulated. The fold change in mRNA 2 non stimulated C stimulated Statistical Analysis of QPCR Data The

JNK1 2 plays a critical role in induction of CO 2 by ET 1 in endo

JNK1 2 plays a critical role in induction of CO 2 by ET 1 in endothelial cells. It has been well established that inflammatory responses following e posure to e tracellular stimuli are highly dependent on activation of NF ��B transcription factor, which plays an important role in regulation of several gene e pression. The 5 flanking region of the CO 2 pro moter has been shown to contain several binding sequences for various transcription factors including NF ��B. Therefore, the regulation of CO 2 transcription may be mediated by aberrant activation of several distinct transcrip tion factors dependent on agonists. These reports suggest that NF ��B plays a critical role in the regulation of CO 2 e pression in the development of the inflammatory responses.

Our data showed that ET 1 induced CO 2 gene e pression and PGE2 release was significantly abolished by a selective NF ��B inhibitor Bay11 7082 or NF ��B p65 siRNA, suggesting that NF ��B is involved in ET 1 induced CO 2 e pression in bEnd. 3 cells. Moreover, ET 1 stimulated NF ��B p65 trans location, binding to CO 2 promoter region, and NF ��B transcriptional activity was significantly inhibited by Bay11 7082 and the MAPK inhibitor U0126, SB202190, or SP600125. Drug_discovery Our data further showed that ET 1 stimulated NF ��B transcriptio nal activity was significantly attenuated by blocking Gi and Gq protein coupled ETB receptor dependent pathways, indicating that ET 1 induced activation of NF ��B is mediated through ETB receptor dependent activation of three MAPKs cascades.

These findings are consistent with recent studies indicating that CO 2 e pression and prostacyclin release induced by thrombin were mediated through MAPKs and NF ��B activation in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and CO 2 e pression and PGE2 release induced by BK via ERK1 2 link ing to NF ��B activation in astrocytes. The involvement of NF ��B in ET 1 induced CO 2 e pression is also consist ent with previous reports indicating that ET 1 stimulated activation of NF ��B regulates e pression of target genes involved in various CNS inflammatory processes. More over, our recent data have also demonstrated that in bEnd. 3 cells, c Src dependent transactivation of EGFR PI3K Akt and MAPKs linking to c Jun AP 1 cascade is essential for ET 1 induced CO 2 PGE2 upregulation.

We suggest that the findings of these two studies might have a crosstalk in MAPKs and lead to CO 2 e pression induced by ET 1 in these cells. The interplay between these two pathways in the induction of CO 2 will be investigated in the future. Conclusions In this study, we reported here that ET 1 ET receptor system e erts its effects on CO 2 gene e pression and PGE2 release in mouse bEnd. 3 cells. The Gi and Gq protein coupled ETB receptor, ERK1 2, p38 MAPK, JNK1 2, and NF ��B cascades cooperatively mediated these effects of ET 1. These findings concerning ET 1 induced CO 2 PGE2 system imply that ET 1 might play a critical role in brain in jury, vascular inflammation, and CNS d

Its characteristics make it ideal for its application in automati

Its characteristics make it ideal for its application in automatic surface inspection systems.2.?Materials and MethodsThe interferometer is built around a Savart plate, which consists of two beam splitting plates made of birefringent material with their optic axes at 45�� to the surface normal, rotated 90�� with respect to each other. Light entering the Savart plate is divided in two components (ordinary and extraordinary) that exit parallel but with a small displacement (or shear) between them. An analyzer is used to bring both beams to the same state of polarization so they can interfere in the detection plane.From any light reflecting point from a surface at a given distance, a spherical wave emerges, and the interference pattern carries information of the radius of this wavefront, or the distance to the surface.

2.1. Sensor DescriptionFigure 1 shows the setup of the prototype. The system uses an ImperX IPX-2M30H-G charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with an active image area of 14.21 �� 8 mm, a density of pixels of 1, 920 �� 1, 080 (pixel size is 7.4 ��m), and 75 mm focal length lens. This provides an angle of view around 10��. With a typical working distance of 100 mm, we can obtain around 19 mm long profiles with a lateral resolution around 10 ��m per pixel.Figure 1.General setup of the prototype system.The sample is mounted over a Thorlabs NanoMax? stage, controlled by the computer to perform surface scans.The profile to be inspected is illuminated by projecting a laser line with a wavelength of 685 nm over the sample.

The line thickness is 280�C290 ��m when focused at 100 mm, and it is projected in the direction of the longer side of the CCD to maximize lateral resolution. A SpeckleFree? module manufactured by Dyoptyka is used to minimize speckle noise while keeping a high maximum frequency of acquisition (up to 500 kHZ).In the detection branch a 50.8 mm focal length cylindrical lens is used to expand light in the direction perpendicular to the laser line. A calcite Savart plate with a total thickness of 7 mm sandwiched between two cross polarizers is placed between the camera lens and the CCD. This plate generates a shear of 0.53 mm for normal incidence.2.1.1. Brefeldin_A Fringe FormationThe formal derivation of fringe formation has been developed in depth in [23]. Here we will only outline the main results needed to follow the working principle of the sensor and the processing method.In the direction of the profile (x-axis in Figure 1) the cylindrical lens has no effect, and the camera lens focuses the light onto the CCD. Therefore each column of the CCD contains the information of a small section of the profile (lateral resolution). We will consider this as one point of the profile.

The index of the glass substrate is taken as 1 5, the periodicity

The index of the glass substrate is taken as 1.5, the periodicity of the structure is 300 nm in both x and y directions. We employ a finite difference time domain (FDTD) solver to perform the electromagnetic simulation with wave propagation direction along the z-axis, normal to the plane containing the gold dimer and polarized along the x-axis (Figure 1a).Figure 1.(a) Unit cell of the metamaterial dimer. The geometric parameters of the gold nanorods of lengths L1 and L2 are: width w = 70 nm, gap g = 50 nm. The gold thickness is 30 nm. The periodicity is 300 nm in both x and y directions. The incident wave is along …3.?Results and DiscussionIn our study of the resonances in the dimer structure, we define a length asymmetry �� = L2 �C L1, with L2 kept constant at 200 nm throughout.

For the symmetric structure with bar lengths L1 = L2 or �� = 0, we calculate the transmission spectra as shown in Figure 1b (solid line). A broad dipolar resonance occurs at about 341.2 THz and corresponds to the bright or super radiant mode which is strongly coupled to the free space. We then consider the situation in which asymmetry is introduced with unequal lengths of the bars L1 and L2 or �� �� 0. For �� = 30 nm, two resonances can be observed from the calculated spectral response, a higher frequency resonance at 362.8 THz and an associated lower frequency resonance at 270.5 THz. The higher frequency resonance of 362.8 THz is a dipole oscillation with similar characteristics like the bright mode resonance of the symmetric dimer structure (�� = 0). The resonant mode at 270.

5 THz, appearing because of the length asymmetry of the dimer, weakly couples to the incident field and is the so-called dark mode [23]. The interference between the bright and the dark modes results in the sharp asymmetric Fano-type profile [6,7,10,14,15,24,25] of the resonance with a characteristic dip and peak as shown in Figure 1b (dashed line).For a better insight into the nature of these resonant modes, we calculate the out-of-plane electric field (Ez) distributions at the bright mode resonance for the symmetric dimer and at both the bright and dark mode resonances for the asymmetric dimer. Ez better than other field components illustrates the charge distribution inside each arm. Figure 2a shows the Ez distribution of the bright mode resonance at 341.

2 THz in the symmetric dimer configuration depicted in Figure 1b (solid line). Here, the dimer behaves as two dipoles with parallel currents which are in-phase and symmetric. The radiation field of dipoles interferes constructively, resulting in the radiant nature AV-951 of the mode. For the asymmetric dimer in Figure 1b (dashed line), the calculated field distributions are shown in Figure 2b,c for the bright and dark mode resonances, respectively. At the higher frequency resonance of 362.8 THz, a bright mode resonance similar to the dipolar mode is observed.

2 ?Wireless Corrosion Monitoring Sensor and NetworkCompared with

2.?Wireless Corrosion Monitoring Sensor and NetworkCompared with the traditional corrosion monitoring approaches, wireless technology-based monitoring is very efficient in terms of cost, convenience, and human-operation overhead, and thus has attracted much attention in the past few years. In this work, we design a WSN to monitor the corrosion of RC structures. The advantages of our WSN-based test-beds are as follows. First, the designed corrosion-detecting device can be built using commercial off-the-shelf wireless motes, such as the Crossbow Mica mote and the Berkeley Telosb mote, so the hardware costs are very low, and the network is easily extended. Second, once the corrosion-detecting device is attached to the wireless mote, we can control the sampling rate by dynamically setting its parameters in an over-the-air fashion.

2.1. Corrosion-Detecting Sensor Mote DesignIn designing the corrosion sensing mote platform, we have to address the following three problems: (1) what sensing device will be used in corrosion signal detection, (2) which kind of wireless mote is appropriate for our objectives in terms of cost and extensibility, and (3) how to connect the corrosion-detecting device to the wireless mote. We will present the designed corrosion-detecting devices in the later sections. Next, we will introduce the MicaZ mote in use and the designed circuit connecting the corrosion-detecting device with the MicaZ mote.As a general wireless embedded platform, the MicaZ mote can not only measure 0�C3 V with 0.01 mV resolution, but also be extended to monitor diverse other signals (such as temperature, humidity and vibration, etc.

), so we used the MicaZ mote in our test-bed to support a closer monitoring of corrosion of RC structures. In our design, we consider mainly two issues related to the WSN platform: one is how to connect the corrosion-detection device to the MicaZ mote, and the other one is how to implement a wireless communication algorithm to effectively Batimastat collect the corrosion data. Figure 1 shows the architecture of our test-bed. The sensing layer consists of a set of sensor motes, which will self-organize into a wireless network. The laptop, data server, or other Internet-accessing devices belong to the gateway layer which is responsible for collecting all the data sent by the sensing layer.

The back-end application layer provides a visual interface for users as well as domain experts. As long as users can access the Internet, they can browse the data and the corresponding analysis results, or even download them.Figure 1.The architecture of the wireless corrosion monitoring system.Even though the MicaZ mote is fitted with a 51-pin connector for external sensing devices, it cannot directly read the signal output of our corrosion-detection devices. This is because MicaZ’s analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) interface (channel) cannot directly measure the current.

The expression of Na+,K+-ATPase isoforms can be altered by pathol

The expression of Na+,K+-ATPase isoforms can be altered by pathological conditions. For instance, in several cardiac diseases, the Na+,K+-ATPase isoform composition of the heart is modified [32]. Numerous studies have reported changes in Na+,K+-ATPase subunit expression and activity in the course of malignant transformation [33-36], including gliomas [37], with evidence that these occur at the very early stages of tumorigenesis [35]. Moreover, it was previously shown that both non-small cell lung and prostate cancer overexpress Na+,K+-ATPase ��1 compared with healthy tissues [35, 36, 38], while reduced expression of the ��1 isoform is commonly observed in carcinoma and is associated with events involved in cancer progression [39].

Recent studies show that in addition to pumping ions, Na+,K+-ATPase interacts with neighboring membrane proteins and organized cytosolic cascades of signaling proteins to send messages to the intracellular organelles [40, 41]. Moreover, it seems that two pools of sodium pumps exist, i.e., one broadly distributed in the plasma membrane directly involved in ion exchange, and another (the one located in caveolae) implicated in the signal transduction in couple with tyrosine kinase Src and epidermal growth factor receptor and functions as a signal-transducing receptor for cardiotonic steroids [36, 38, 40, 41]. These data support the view that Na+,K+-ATPase could be an important target for the development of anti-cancer drugs as it serves as a versatile signal transducer, it is a key player in cell adhesion and the aberrant expression of Na+,K+-ATPase and activity are implicated in the development and progression of different cancers [35-38].

The sodium pump is specifically inhibited by a series of naturally occurring cardiac glycosides, a family of compounds that includes cardenolides and cardiotonic steroids. The ouabain like specific inhibitors of sodium pump activity primarily bind to extracellular domains of �� subunits [42]. Since cardiotonic steroids are the natural ligands and specific inhibitors of the sodium pump [43], this supports the possibility of their development as anticancer agents targeting overexpressed Na+,K+-ATPase �� subunits [35-38, 44].However, the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase may be affected by various endogenous and exogenous factors [42-54].

The regulation of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in various tissues is under the control of a number of circulating hormones that impart both short- and long-term control over its activity [44, 45]. Also, the activity of the enzyme is dependent Batimastat on the lipid status of the membrane [46]. Although the mechanism of the toxic effect of various Na+,K+-ATPase activity modulators has not been completely understood yet, this enzyme can be taken as meaningful index of cellular activity and represents a useful toxicological tool [54].

In this context, it is useful to highlight how the WSN approach

In this context, it is useful to highlight how the WSN approach perfectly fits the perspective of ambient intelligence in large, possibly city-wide scenarios. First of all, let us recall that wireless sensors are usually very small nodes with a limited set of capabilites. They usually incorporate by default a set of environmental sensors (temperature, light, humidity), a programmable general-purpose microcontroller, some RAM/ROM units and a radio transceiver unit. Recent implementations of wireless sensors also incorporate a serial connection (e.g., through a USB interface), which is used for programming, but can also be employed for power supply. By means of wireless communications, the sensors can be organized into a network that cooperates in tasks including, but not limited to, environmental monitoring and control, alarm dissemination, localization and tracking of moving objects, and ambient intelligence in general.

The latter definition encompasses a number of applications involving complex interactions between a user, the network, and the environment, possibly including some specific actuation devices that might be interfaced to the sensors in order to carry out a certain task. For example, a wireless sensor with a hardcoded identity footprint could communicate with the network so that its movements can be tracked: such a sensor could, e.g., be attached to a piece of luggage, to make sure that it is routed toward the correct destination by airport logistics and that, in case of errors, its route can be quickly reconstructed, in order to allow timely recovery.

In WSNs, the energy efficiency aspect is of paramount importance. In fact, it should be noted that wireless sensors are mostly powered through external batteries or battery packs. As this supply is limited, energy efficient operations and communications must be pursued, so that battery replacements on the sensors are as infrequent as possible, in order to keep power supply and maintenance manpower costs low. For this reason, networking protocol design as well as application design must carefully account for the limited processing and storage capabilities of the microcontroller: therefore, the further delay that would be caused by complex processing tasks should be explicitly considered in light of, e.g., the timing of communication protocols. In the following, we give more details on the typical configurations and peculiar features of WSNs, in order to provide a wider characterization of their uses and behaviors. In general, a WSN is characterized by being:partly stationary: the Dacomitinib vast majority of the deployed nodes are fixed and constitute the infrastructure of the network.

Agrawal, Panigrahi and Tiwari [20] in a recent paper proposed a f

Agrawal, Panigrahi and Tiwari [20] in a recent paper proposed a fuzzy clustering-based PSO algorithm to solve the highly constrained environmental/economic dispatch problem involving conflicting objectives.There exists an extensive literature on improving the performance of the PSO algorithm. This has been undertaken by two alternative approaches. First, the researchers are keen to improve swarm behavior by selecting the appropriate form of the swarm dynamics. Alternatively, considering a given form of particle dynamics, researchers experimentally, or theoretically, attempted to find the optimal settings of the range of parameters to improve PSO behavior.

In this paper, we adopt the first policy to determine a suitable dynamics, and then attempted to empirically determine the optimal parameter settings.

The classical PSO dynamics adapts the velocity of individual particles by considering the inertia of the particle and the position of local and global attractors. The positions of the attractors are also adapted over the iterations of the algorithm. The motion of the particles thus continues until most of the particles converge in the close vicinity of the global optima. In this paper, we consider different versions of the swarm dynamics to study the relative performance of the PSO algorithm both from the point of view of accuracy and convergence time.The formal basis of our study originates from the well-known Lyapunov’s theorem of classical control theory.

Entinostat The Lyapunov’s theorem is widely used in nonlinear system analysis to determine the necessary conditions for stability of a dynamical system.

In this paper, we indirectly used Lyapunov’s stability theorem to determine a dynamics that necessarily converges to an optima of the Lyapunov-like search landscape. The principles of guiding particle dynamics towards the global and local optima, here too, is ensured by adding local and global attractor terms to the modified PSO dynamics. The rationale of selecting a dynamics that converges at one of the optima on a multimodal Carfilzomib surface, and the principle of forcing the dynamics to move towards local and global optima together makes it attractive for use in continuous nonlinear optimization.

There are, however, search landscapes that do not possess the necessary characteristics of a Lyapunov surface. This calls for an alternative dynamics, which maintains the motivation of this research but can avoid the restriction on the objective function to necessarily be Lyapunov-like. A look at the dynamics constructed for Lyapunov-like benchmark functions essentially reveals an inclusion of a negative position term in the velocity adaptation rule.