This technique was used to investigate

the morphology of

This technique was used to investigate

the morphology of the particles. The SLNs sample was observed in the form of aqueous dispersion using Quanta 200 ESEM (FEI, USA) (magnification: 24000×; accelerating voltage: 10 kV) at 25 ± 2 °C.7 On the bases of results obtained in the preliminary screening find more studies, two levels of each independent variable were decided. For three factors, the Box–Behnken design offers some advantage in requiring a fewer number of runs over the composite central, three-level full factorial designs. In full factorial designs, as number of factors increase there is increase in number of trial runs exponentially, such as 33 = 27, but with Box–Behnken design optimization HIF inhibitor can be completed with 17 experiments with five centre point. As it is shown in Table 2 and Table 3, Y1, Y2, and Y3 were fitted with a quadratic model and insignificant lack of fit (P > 0.05). The positive sign of the factors represent a synergistic effect on the response, while a negative sign means an antagonist relationship. Phrases composed of two factors indicate the interaction terms and phrases with second-order factors stand for the nonlinear relationship between the response and the variable. The second-order polynomial equation relating the response of particle size (Y1) is given below: equation(1) Y1=+194.83+12.95A−28.36B−25.48C+2.25AB+17.73AC−3.86BC−10.47A2+37.77B2+18.20C2Y1=+194.83+12.95A−28.36B−25.48C+2.25AB+17.73AC−3.86BC−10.47A2+37.77B2+18.20C2

The model F-value of 7288.58 implied that the model is significant (p < 0.0001). The ‘Lack of Fit F-value’ of 0.24 implied that the Lack of Fit is not significant (p = 0.8618). As Table 3 shows, the ANOVA test indicates that A, B, C, AB, BC, AC, A2, B2and C2 are significant model terms. Positive coefficients of A, AB, AC, B2& C2 in equation (1) indicate the synergistic

effect on particle size while negative coefficients Idoxuridine of B, C, BC & A2 indicate the antagonistic effect on particle size. The “Pred R Squared” of 0.9996 is in reasonable agreement with the “Adj R-Squared” of 0.9998, indicating the adequacy of the model to predict the response of particle size. The ‘Adeq Precision’ of 345.975 indicated an adequate signal. Therefore, this model is used to navigate the design space. The 3-D surface plots for particle size are shown in Fig. 1. An increase in particle size from 239.76 nm (H1) to 260.65 nm (H2) was observed on increasing the drug to lipid ratio from 1:2 to 1:4 (Table 2). This was probably caused by the aggregation of particles because of the concentration of surfactant was constant and not enough to form a protective layer on each particle10. A decrease in particle size from 193.98 nm (H13) to172.9 nm (H12) was observed on increasing surfactant concentration (up to certain limit) and stirring speed.

In order to verify the bioactivity of the rIL-5 protein and thus

In order to verify the bioactivity of the rIL-5 protein and thus the authenticity of the

vaccine, we tested the ability of rIL-5 to induce proliferation of BCL-1 cells. As shown in Fig. 1A, rIL-5 induced proliferation of BCL-1 cells in a concentration dependent manner. The highest proliferation rate was induced with 10 ng/ml of rIL-5. This activity was similar to commercially acquired IL-5 (cIL-5). This result demonstrates that rIL-5 was correctly folded and that the His-tag and the Cys-containing linker did not adversely affect the protein. Murine r-eotaxin 1 with a hexa-histidine tag and a cysteine containing linker at its C-terminus was expressed and purified. It has been previously demonstrated that the number of eosinophils circulating in EPZ-6438 mw the blood increases in response to administration of eotaxin and the accumulation of eosinophils in response to eotaxin was more Panobinostat supplier pronounced in mice that had been sensitized with OVA [30]. To verify the bioactivity of r-eotaxin, we tested its chemo-attractant activity towards eosinophils in vivo. OVA immunized BALB/c

mice (n = 5) were injected with either PBS or 0.5 μg of r-eotaxin i.v. The number of eosinophils in the blood was assessed 30 min after the injection. As shown in Fig. 1B, the number of eosinophils in the blood doubled in mice which had been treated with r-eotaxin. This results shows that r-eotaxin was efficient Edoxaban at inducing the accumulation of eosinophils in the blood and was thus expressed in an authentic manner. In order to produce Qβ-IL-5 and Qβ-Eot vaccines, rIL-5 and r-eotaxin were both chemically coupled to VLPs derived from bacteriophage Qβ via a heterobifunctional cross-linker. The Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE demonstrates the presence of rIL-5 (lane 2 of the left panel of Fig. 1C), r-eotaxin (lane 4 of the left panel of Fig. 1D), monomeric (14 kDa) and multimeric Qβ subunits (lane 3 of the left panel of Fig. 1C and lane 2 of the left panel of Fig. 1D). Coupling products whose molecular masses correspond to rIL-5 or r-eotaxin covalently

linked to one or more Qβ monomers are shown in lane 4 of the left panel of Fig. 1C and lane 3 of the left panel of Fig. 1D, respectively. Western blot analysis with either anti-His (middle panels of 1C and D) or anti-Qβ antibodies (right panels of 1C and D) demonstrated the same bands reacted with both antibodies, confirming the covalent attachment of rIL-5 or r-eotaxin to Qβ. In contrast, anti-Qβ antibody did not react with either rIL-5 or r-eotaxin (lane 1 of the right panel of Fig. 1C and lane 3 of the right panel of Fig. 1D, respectively). Analysis of the coupling efficiency by densitometry showed that 47% or 15% of Qβ monomers were cross-linked to rIL-5 or r-eotaxin, respectively. This corresponds to about 80–90 rIL-5 and 25-30 r-eotaxin molecules displayed per VLP.

The following computerised databases were searched from their res

The following computerised databases were searched from their respective inception dates up to the 18th May 2009: MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, IBSS, AMED, BNI and Cochrane Review. Articles were included if they had a focus on spinal pain populations Everolimus concentration (search term keywords: back pain, low back pain, neck pain), measured informal social support (search term keywords: social support,

social networks, family relations, social interaction) and provided data for the role of informal social support on association, risk or prognosis with spinal pain outcomes such as pain intensity, disability, recovery or associated psychological factors (search term keywords: risk factors, prospective studies, epidemiologic studies, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies). The search terms (Table S1, see the online version at 10.1016/j.ejpain.2010.09.011) were used as keywords and also exploded to include all lower level headings (e.g. Mesh SCH727965 in vitro terms

within MEDLINE). Studies were excluded that focused on employment support, or included other health populations (e.g. cancer, diabetes), studies solely on pregnant women, studies of surgical cohorts (e.g. lumbar fusion patients), studies of back pain/neck pain patients who have a specific diagnosis (e.g. lumbar stenosis, spondylolithesis, spinal cord diseases, red flags) and small case series (e.g. studies of <30 people). Reference lists of

the studies and current relevant reviews were checked for additional study citations. Validated measures of social support were also citation checked using the ISI Web of Science citation mapping system, and databases of local experts were consulted for below information on additional research studies. It was not possible to use a pre-existing quality assessment tool to assess article quality due to the inclusion of differing study designs (e.g. cohort, cross-sectional) and so the quality assessment measure (Table S2, see the online version at 10.1016/j.ejpain.2010.09.011) was based on the combination of assessments of a number of recent review articles and guidance on quality assessment within systematic reviews on the area of back pain (Hoogendoorn et al., 2000, Woods, 2005, Mallen et al., 2007, Hayden et al., 2008 and Lakke et al., 2009). Article quality was assessed by considering the following components: having a clear research objective, describing the recruitment procedure, describing the inclusion exclusion criteria, describing the population parameters/demographics, describing participation rates, describing the measure of social support, reporting the strength of effect, use of multivariate analysis, having an adequate sample size, acknowledging the limitations of their research, and reporting a participation rate above 70%.

NaH2PO4·H2O (3 4 g/L) and pentane-1-sulphonic acid sodium salt (0

NaH2PO4·H2O (3.4 g/L) and pentane-1-sulphonic acid sodium salt (0.4 g/L) as a buffer (pH 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4) in combination with acetonitrile. It is clear from the molecular structure (Fig. 1), that all compounds do not possess a functional group which can readily ionize indicating polar in nature. Hence we started the development activity with C8 stationary phase of various manufacturers using different mobile phases. The poor resolution between Metoclopramide and ACETYLMETO and broad peak shape for Metoclopramide implies that

C8 stationary phase is not suitable for this application. Hence C18 stationary phase was chosen to improve resolution among MEK inhibitor the peaks and peak shape for Metoclopramide. The peak shape for Metoclopramide PI3K inhibitor and resolution among all components improved with Waters X-terra RP18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μ columns. The resolution among related impurities and Metoclopramide was found poor using mobile phase with octane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt. Mobile phase containing pentane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt with ammonium phosphate instead of octane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt gives the better resolution.

However, one unknown impurity is merging with ACETYLMETO. Ammonium phosphate is replaced with sodium phosphate buffer keeping pentane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt as such, gives the better separation among the impurities. Initially methanol was used as an organic modifier which gives the poor baseline with baseline drift. The retention for all impurities was increased leading to inadequate resolution among the peaks. To improve the resolution among the peaks and response, acetonitrile was tried as an organic modifier. The baseline was found to be good and response for all components was improved. The peak shape for all components was also improved and hence acetonitrile the was selected as the organic modifier. The mobile phase was buffered because of the existence of ionizable groups in the chemical structure of the drug, which could

ionize at different pH values. The pH values tested were 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5. Finally, the best results were obtained at pH 3.0 ± 0.1 by adjusting with orthophosphoric acid solution. The choice of this mobile phase is justified by the excellent symmetry of the peaks and adequate retention times of Metoclopramide and its degradents. Based on the spectra of Metoclopramide and its related substances 273 nm was selected as detection wavelength for the method. The UV spectrum of Metoclopramide and its impurities were shown in Fig. 2. Different mobile phase flow rates (1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 mL/min) were investigated. The optimum flow rate for which the column plate number was maximum, with the best resolution between all compounds and a short runtime (18 min) observed was 1.2 mL/min. Column thermostat temperatures were used at 30 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C for better peak shapes, baseline and resolution.

What are the effects of a paired student placement model that inc

What are the effects of a paired student placement model that incorporates specifically facilitated peer-assisted learning activities, compared to a traditional teaching approach, on student performance outcomes measured Tenofovir in vivo by external assessors blinded to group allocation, clinical educators and student self-assessment? This trial was a prospective, randomised, crossover trial comparing two models of physiotherapy clinical undergraduate education: a traditional paired model and a peer-assisted learning paired model

(Figure 1). The trial was conducted in a tertiary metropolitan health service from June to October 2011. Participating sites included three acute hospitals, one sub-acute inpatient centre and one outpatient rehabilitation centre. Physiotherapy students from Monash University, in the third year of a four-year undergraduate Small molecule library chemical structure degree, were eligible for inclusion if they were allocated to clinical placements at the health service. There were no exclusion criteria. Students were randomly paired and allocated to either traditional or peer-assisted learning groups for the duration of their 5-week cardiorespiratory and neurology clinical placements. Student pairs remained

the same for both placements. Before random allocation occurred, a university staff member who was not involved in the project allocated students to placements at the participating health service, based on student preferences. Prior to the commencement of the study, participating clinical educators

were engaged in four 2-hour workshops that focused on development and facilitation of a peer-assisted learning model.21 Students attended a 2-hour tutorial on the first day of their peer-assisted learning placement, at which they were introduced to the tools and expectations of the peer-assisted learning model. Blinded assessors with experience in using the Assessment of Physiotherapy Practice were seconded from the university and other health services, and remunerated for their time. In the absence of any published operational peer-assisted learning model, the literature was mined for tools and frameworks that could be used to facilitate peer-assisted learning between student pairs. Clinical educators participating in the trial worked collaboratively Isotretinoin to develop the model, utilising an iterative process that included four workshops, culminating in consensus (process and outcomes reported in more detail elsewhere).21 The final model included a standardised series of tools that were utilised by students and educators during the peer-assisted learning clinical placements (Table 1), in addition to typical learning activities such as involvement in patient care, team meetings, tutorials and administration. The peer-assisted learning tools could be used as required, but a minimum number of applications was mandated (Table 1).

The overall

improvement in left ventricular ejection frac

The overall

improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction Decitabine in vitro was comparable to that obtained with aerobic training only (WMD –0.5%, 95% CI –4.3 to 3.3) ( Figure 2, see also Figure 3 on the eAddenda for detailed forest plot). Exercise capacity: The effect of resistance training alone on peak oxygen consumption was calculated using the pooled post-intervention data of four studies with 96 participants. Resistance training alone showed a favourable trend only on peak oxygen consumption (WMD 1.4 ml/kg/min, 95% CI –0.3 to 3.1) ( Figure 4a, see also Figure 5a on the eAddenda for detailed forest plot). The effect of resistance training as an adjunct to aerobic training was derived from three studies with 115 participants. The addition of resistance training to aerobic training did not significantly affect peak oxygen consumption (WMD –0.7 ml/kg/min, 95% CI –2.3 to 1.0) ( Figure 4b, see also Figure 5b on the eAddenda for detailed forest plot). Two studies with 40 participants examined the effect of resistance training alone on the 6-minute walk test. The post-intervention data were pooled using a fixed effect model. Resistance training increased the 6-minute walk distance significantly, by 52 m (95% CI 19 to 85) more than non-training (Figure

6, see also selleck chemicals llc Figure 7 on the eAddenda for detailed forest plot). No studies of resistance training as an adjunct to aerobic exercise measured the 6-minute walk distance. Quality of life: Two studies examining the effect of resistance training alone measured quality of life. Cider and colleagues (1997) used the Quality of Life Questionnaire – Heart Failure, which measures somatic and emotional aspects, click here life satisfaction, and physical limitations. They reported unchanged quality of life in the training group. Tyni-Lenné and colleagues (2001) used the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire as the measurement tool, on which

lower scores indicate better quality of life. They reported a beneficial effect of resistance training on quality of life after 8 weeks, with median scores of 19 (range 0 to 61) in the resistance training group and 44 (range 3 to 103) in the control group (p < 0.001). Two studies with 57 participants examined the effect of resistance exercise as an adjunct to aerobic training. Both used the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Their data were pooled using a fixed effect model. Adding resistance training to aerobic training programs did not significantly change Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire scores compared to those obtained with aerobic exercise alone, WMD 0.9 (95% CI –5.4 to 3.7) (Figure 8, see also Figure 9 on the eAddenda for detailed forest plot). A third study (Beckers et al 2008) used the Health Complaints Scale, which primarily measures somatic symptoms.

In this work, we contribute to improve the knowledge of the adjuv

In this work, we contribute to improve the knowledge of the adjuvant activity of the saponins fraction named QB-90U prepared from leaves of Q. brasiliensis collected in Uruguay, in comparison to two of the most commonly used adjuvants (alum and Quil A). We analyze the haemolytic activity and cytotoxicity

of QB-90U and evaluate its potential as vaccine adjuvant using another viral antigen as model, by comparing its performance with those of Quil A and alum. For the latter purpose, we assess the antibody (IgG and its selleck kinase inhibitor subclasses) and cellular (DTH assay) responses of mice immunized with a preparation of inactivated BoHV-5. In addition, we specifically evaluate whether QB-90U is capable of inducing the generation selleck of Th1 CD4+ T cells by assessing the expression levels of Th1 cytokines in splenocytes from immunized mice. Q. brasiliensis (A. St.-Hil.

et Tul.) Mart. leaves were collected in Parque Battle, Montevideo, Uruguay. The samples were identified by Eduardo Alonso of the Botany Department, Facultad de Química, UdelaR, and a voucher sample was kept at the Herbarium of the Faculty (MVFQ 4321). Air-dried powdered leaves were extracted in distilled water (1:10, w/v) under constant stirring at room temperature for 8 h. The extract was then filtered and lyophilized to obtain the aqueous extract from which fraction QB-90U was purified following the procedure described by Fleck et al. [17]. Briefly, the aqueous saponin extract was applied to a silica Lichroprep column and eluted with a stepwise gradient of aqueous methanol 0–100% methanol. The fractions were analyzed by TLC, from and those with a similar saponin composition were pooled together to give the QB-90U fraction. The haemolytic activity of QB-90U and Quil A (BRENNTAG, Denmark) was assessed as described before [10], except that guinea

pig red blood cells at a 1% concentration were used for the assays. Concentration ranges from 500 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL (500, 250, 230, 200, 180, 160, 150, 130, 110, 100, 70 and 50 μg/mL) and from 110 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL (110, 100, 80, 60, 50, 30, 20, 15 and 10 μg/mL) were used for QB-90U and Quil A, respectively, each sample was tested in triplicate. Saline and Q. saponaria saponins (250 μg/mL) were used as references for 0% and 100% haemolysis, respectively. The mixture of Q. saponaria saponins was prepared by dialysis against distilled water from a commercial sample [10]. The haemolytic activity was expressed as the concentration producing 50% of the maximum haemolysis (HD50). Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT assay, in general following the original procedure [18].

During consolidation, which can last from minutes to hours, this

During consolidation, which can last from minutes to hours, this memory is moved from a labile to a more fixed state. During retrieval, the animal is returned to the conditioning context, where memory for the context-shock association is assessed (Abel and Lattal, 2001). The results of the present investigation showed that a single administration of PEBT (10 mg/kg, p.o.), FRAX597 in vivo 1 h before training of step-down inhibitory avoidance task, increased the step-through latency. In other words, PEBT improved the acquisition of memory in mice. Furthermore, the effect of post-training administration of PEBT on the consolidation

process was evaluated. In memory studies, where drugs are administered after, not before training, the drug’s effects can be attributed to influences in the consolidation of memory, a process which takes place immediately after the training experience and lasts for few hours [for a review see (McGaugh, 1989 and Castellano et al., 2001)]. PEBT (10 mg/kg, p.o.) administered immediately after training enhanced memory consolidation due to the increase in the step-through latency. Pre-test administration of drugs may affect retrieval process which implies the Cyclopamine reactivation of memories and variety of factors can modify

retrieval at the time of testing (McGaugh, 2000). In the present study, pre-test administration of PEBT (10 mg/kg, p.o.) improved retrieval of memory in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. By contrast, 5 mg/kg dose of PEBT did not improve acquisition, consolidation or retrieval. Moreover, it is important to mention that PEBT did not cause impairment in the locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of mice assessed by the open-field test. Based upon PEBT effect on cognitive enhancement in mice and considering the facilitatory effect of the glutamatergic system on the memory of various tasks, we investigated the possible involvement of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the PEBT action. isothipendyl The amino acid glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, is known to play important roles in several physiological processes, such as cognition and neural plasticity

of synaptic connections (Meldrum, 2000 and Mattson, 2008). Our results demonstrated that PEBT at the dose of 10 mg/kg inhibited [3H]glutamate uptake, but not [3H]glutamate release, in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. Accordingly, diphenyl diselenide and diphenyl ditelluride, organochalcogen compounds, did not alter [3H]glutamate release by rat brain synaptosomes in vivo ( Nogueira et al., 2002). Therefore, the [3H]glutamate uptake seems to be related, at least in part, to the mechanisms by which PEBT induces cognitive enhancement in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task in mice. These findings are consistent with those reported by different research groups ( Daisley et al., 1998, Lhullier et al., 2004 and Mameli et al.

6% of investigational vaccine recipients and ≤7 8% of PHiD-CV rec

6% of investigational vaccine recipients and ≤7.8% of PHiD-CV recipients) (Fig. 2). Post-booster, pain was the most common solicited local symptom for most groups (Fig. 2). Specific grade 3 solicited local symptoms were reported for 0.0–9.6% of investigational vaccine recipients and for 0.0–6.0%

of PHiD-CV recipients (Fig. 2). Irritability was the most common solicited general symptom following primary and booster vaccination (Fig. 3). One or more solicited general symptoms were reported for up to 59.6% of participants post-dose 1, 47.1% post-dose 2 and 50.0% post-booster in the investigational groups, and for up to 51.0% post-dose 1, 54.0% post-dose 2 and 38.0% post-booster in the PHiD-CV group (Fig. 3). Incidences of grade 3 solicited general symptoms ranged from 0.0% to 3.9% post-dose 1 and from 0.0% to 2.0% find more post-dose 2 in the investigational groups; none were reported for

PHiD-CV, except irritability post-dose 2 (2.0%). Post-booster, grade 3 solicited general symptoms were reported by 0.0–3.9% of investigational vaccine recipients and by 0.0–2.0% of PHiD-CV recipients (Fig. 3). Five large swelling reactions were reported: one occurring post-dose 1 and three post-booster in the PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-10 group, and one post-dose 2 in the PHiD-CV group. All large swelling reactions were local reactions around the injection site with a diameter of 53–100 mm and onset on day 0 or 1 after vaccination. All resolved completely within maximum two days. Unsolicited AEs considered vaccine-related were reported for one toddler (injection site fibrosis) following dPly/PhtD-10 primary vaccination, for two toddlers (vomiting and injection Pexidartinib purchase site fibrosis) after dPly/PhtD-10 booster, for one Methisazone toddler (rhinitis) after PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-10 booster and for one toddler (rhinitis, insomnia and cough) after PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 booster. Grade 3 unsolicited AEs were reported for 11 toddlers after primary vaccination (Table S1) and for one toddler after dPly/PhtD-30 booster vaccination (cystitis). Overall, 23 SAEs were reported in 17 toddlers (five, dPly/PhtD-10; three, dPly/PhtD-30; five, PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-10; four, PHiD-CV).

None of the SAEs were fatal or considered by the investigators to be vaccine-related; all resolved without sequelae except one (type 1 diabetes mellitus), which was improving at the time of study end. Pre-dose 1, 61.0–75.6% of toddlers in each group were seropositive for PhtD (antibody concentration ≥391 LU/mL). In the investigational vaccine groups, these percentages increased to at least 97.7% one month post-dose 2 and pre-booster, reaching 100% post-booster. In the PHiD-CV group, 85.0–85.4% of toddlers were seropositive for anti-PhtD antibodies at these post-vaccination timepoints (Table 1). A high baseline seropositivity rate for anti-Ply antibodies (antibody concentrations ≥599 LU/mL) was seen in all groups (75.0–88.6%). Seropositivity rates increased in all investigational groups to at least 97.

The extraction yield was 26% of the dry weight The results of ph

The extraction yield was 26% of the dry weight. The results of phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, tannins and phenol. The test for alkaloid was negative. Total learn more phenol and flavonol content of the methanolic extract was 34 mg/g and 28.1 mg/g of dry sample. The zones of inhibition of H. japonicum methanolic extract against fourteen bacterial cultures are tabulated in Table 1. The extract had a broad spectrum antibacterial activity. Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were inhibited by the extract except P. aeruginosa. The MIC of the extract was 1 mg/ml against all the test

cultures used except E. aerogenes and P. aeruginosa. Total antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of H. japonicum was 37.28 ± 0.54 μg/mg of the extract as estimated by Molybdenum reduction assay. The antiradical power of the extract was determined by using DPPH stable free radicals. Dose dependent DPPH radical quenching by the extract and BHA were compared in Fig. 1. The IC50 values of the extract and BHA were 77.7 ± 5.6 μg/ml and 55.85 ± 6.89 μg/ml respectively. The extract and quercetin both inhibited β-carotene bleaching up to 25 h at three tested

concentrations (1000 μg/ml, 500 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml). Complete bleaching of β-carotene was observed after 17 h in absence of extract or standard. The antioxidant activity of the extract and quercetin after 25 h of incubation find more was 83.18% and 63.01% respectively at the concentration of 100 μg per assay. Dose dependent activity during of the extract is shown in Fig. 2A. The β-carotene bleaching with lapse of time in presence and absence of extract and quercetin was compared in Fig. 2B. The activity of the extract was significantly higher than control and quercetin (at P ≤ 0.001). The activity of

H. japonicum methanolic extract was 31% better than quercetin. The extract and quercetin inhibited the lipid peroxidation by 95.38% and 94.16% respectively at the concentration of 15 μg per assay. A dose dependent DNA protection activity was observed in H. japonicum extract ( Fig. 3). Smeared DNA band in control (without extract or quercetin) represents the hydroxyl radical mediated DNA damage. The band smearing was decreased with increase in the concentration of extract and quercetin from 100 μg/ml to 500 μg/ml. DNA bands were similar to that of native calf thymus DNA at the concentration of 500 μg/ml. The HPLC fingerprint of the methanolic extract is given in Fig. 4. Six phenolic acids and two flavonoids were identified based on retention time compared with that of reference standards. Percentage composition of each of the phenolic acids in the extract is given in Table 2. H. japonicum is a well known medicinal plant in China.