08-4 72 tC hm(-2), 0 95-3 24 tC hm(-2),

22 0%-28 3%, and

08-4.72 tC hm(-2), 0.95-3.24 tC hm(-2),

22.0%-28.3%, and 34.5%-122.2%, respectively. The Korean pine plantation had the lowest foliage production efficiency (total biomass/foliage biomass: 22.6 g g(-1)) among the six forests, while the Dahurian larch plantation had the highest small root production efficiency (total biomass/small root biomass: 124.7 g g(-1)). The small root C density BAY 73-4506 in vitro decreased with soil depth for all forests except for the Mongolian oak forest, in which the small roots tended to be vertically distributed downwards. The C density of coarse woody debris was significantly less in the two plantations than in the four naturally regenerated forests. The variability of C allocation patterns in a specific forest is jointly influenced buy Vorinostat by vegetation type, management history, and local water and nutrient availability.

The study provides important data for developing and validating C cycling models for temperate forests.”
“Twist-1 protein (also called Twist) has been suggested to be involved in tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related progression, however, the mechanism by which Twist promotes lymph node metastasis is not fully understood. In the present study, we found that nuclear Twist expression is clearly correlated with lymph node (LN) metastasis as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A highly invasive EC109 cell subline, EC109-P, was established by repeated in vitro transwell isolations for the HIF inhibitor cell model. Immunofluorescence (IF) assay demonstrated that nuclear Twist expression was markedly higher in the highly invasive EC109-P cell line when compared with EC109 and EC9706 cells. Based on our cell

model, the function and mechanism by which Twist regulates LN metastasis in ESCC was investigated. The results showed that the overexpression of Twist could significantly increase the invasion and VEGF-C expression of EC9706 cells, whereas the knockdown of Twist expression results in the opposite effects. This finding was further strengthened by the results of the analysis of co-expression of Twist and VEGF-C by IHC in ESCC clinical samples. In summary, our study indicates that nuclear Twist plays an important role in ESCC lymphatic metastasis by increasing the expression of VEGF-C. The combination of Twist and VEGF-C detection could be a reliable prediction of LN metastasis in ESCC.”
“Epidemic prevention policies in hospitals address issues such as, indoor air quality control, cleanliness of medical staff clothing and employee hand-washing procedures. Our hospital employed Bio-Kil to treat air-conditioning filters and nursing staff uniforms. We also assessed the efficacy of different detergents. Using Bio-Kil technology, the mean bacterial count in the air was reduced from 108.8 CFU/h/plate (n=420) to 68.6 CFU/h/plate (n=630).

“The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPA

“The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), a group of ligand-activated transcriptional factors, is expressed in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive astrocytes. Here, we investigated the role of PPAR gamma in regulating GFAP using a mixture of As, Cd and Pb (metal mixture, MM) that induces apoptosis and aberrant morphology in rat brain astrocytes. We observed a phospho PPAR gamma (serine 112 (S112)) (p-PPAR gamma (S112))-mediated downregulation of GFAP in the MM-exposed astrocytes. We validated this using pure PPARc agonist, troglitazone (TZ). As reported with MM, TZ induced

astrocyte damage owing to reduced GFAP. In silico analysis in the non-coding region of GFAP gene revealed two PPAR gamma response elements (PPREs); inverted repeat 10 and direct Bafilomycin A1 repeat 1 sequences. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays check details demonstrated enhancement in

binding of p-PPAR gamma (S112) to the sequences, and luciferase reporter assay revealed strong repression of GFAP via PPREs, in response to both MM and TZ. This indicated that suppression in GFAP indeed occurs through direct regulation of these elements by p-PPAR gamma (S112). Signaling studies proved that MM, as well as TZ, activated the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and enhanced its interaction with PPAR gamma resulting into increased p-PPAR gamma (S112).

The p-CDK5 levels were dependent on proximal activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and downstream Jun N-terminal kinase. Taken together, these results are the first to delineate downregulation Selleckchem Ferroptosis inhibitor of GFAP through genomic and non-genomic signaling of PPAR gamma. It also brings forth a resemblance of TZ with MM in terms of astrocyte disarray in developing brain.”
“Oats are rich in dietary fibre (DF) especially in beta-glucan which has several health-promoting effects. Oats are not commonly used in extruded snacks because they often result in a poor expansion and hard structure. In the present study, defatted wholegrain oat flour (WF) and defatted endosperm oat flour (EF) were used as starch sources for extrudates. Five differently treated oat bran fractions (untreated, ultra-fine ground, enzymatically hydrolysed and hot water-extracted solubles and residue) were added to EF (10 or 20 %), and their influence on the chemical, textural and structural properties of extrudates was investigated. Extrudates made of WF had a poor expansion (151 %) and hard texture (399 N), whereas EF formed a better expanded (199 %) and less hard product (149 N). Addition of oat bran concentrate (OBC) decreased the expansion (171-176 %) and resulted in a harder texture (200-265 N) compared to that of EF 100 % extrudates.

SSR data are also used

for the estimation of marker mutat

SSR data are also used

for the estimation of marker mutation rates and allow pedigree inferences, particularly with founder genotypes of the currently grown cultivars, which are useful to understand the evolution of peach as a crop. Results Entinostat datasheet on LD conservation can be explained by the self-pollinating nature of peach cultivated germplasm and by a bottleneck that occurred at the beginning of modern breeding practices. High LD suggests that the development of whole-genome scanning approaches is suitable for genetic studies of agronomically important traits in peach.”
“microRNAs play an important role in regulating synaptic plasticity. For example, microRNAs target (and are targeted by) plasticity mediators SN-38 such as CREB, MECP2, and FMRP. As well, specific microRNAs have been shown to be expressed within dendrites, where they regulate

protein translation of targets mediating dendritic growth. Components of the RISC machinery have been implicated in long-term memory in Drosophila. Here, we review evidence from studies of adult mouse forebrain supporting a model wherein synaptic stimulation (above a threshold value) increases calcium within dendritic spines, activates calpain, and activates and releases dicer from the postsynaptic density. Dicer processes local pre-miRs into mature miRNAs that are incorporated into RISC complexes within or near the dendritic spine, and that bind available target mRNAs in the vicinity. These may repress protein translation under resting conditions, yet permit a phasic burst of translation to occur transiently selleck chemical following subsequent synaptic activity. Loaded RISC complexes that are not bound to local mRNAs may serve to bind and trap mRNAs that are being transported down dendrites. Thus, locally formed microRNAs may mark

the location of previously activated synapses and perform a type of synaptic tagging and capture.”
“Relative to closed-canopy tropical forests, tree seedlings planted in open grown areas are exposed to higher light intensity, air temperatures, vapor pressure deficit, and greater seasonal fluxes of plant available water than mature tropical forests. The species-specific adaptive capacity to respond to variable precipitation and seasonality in open grown conditions, therefore, is likely to affect species performance in large-scale reforestation efforts. In the present study, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics of eight tropical tree species within and between seasons at two study sites with contrasting dry season intensities. All species except Pseudosamanea guachapele reduced leaf physiological function between the wet and dry seasons. The contrasting severity of seasonal drought stress at the study sites constrained growth rates and photosynthetic characteristics differently. Variation of photosynthetic characteristics at the species level was high, particularly in the dry season.

Lupus anticoagulant studies were negative Superwarfarin toxicity

Lupus anticoagulant studies were negative. Superwarfarin toxicity was suspected and confirmed with an anticoagulant poison panel positive for brodifacoum. The patient was hospitalized and successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate and vitamin K. In conclusion, paradoxical thrombosis and hemorrhage should raise the suspicion for superwarfarin toxicity in the appropriate clinical setting. Further studies are required to define the management of these patients. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 24:202-204 (C) 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”

NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase FDH1 gene (fdh1), cloned from Candida boidinii, was expressed in the ldh-deleted Elacridar cell line mutant of Enterobacter

aerogenes IAM1183 strain. The plasmid of pCom10 driven by the PalkB promoter was used to construct the fdh1 expression system and thus introduce a new dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) regeneration pathway from formate in the ldh-deleted mutant. The knockout of NADH-consuming lactate pathway affected the whole cellular metabolism, and the hydrogen yield increased by 11.4% compared with the wild strain. Expression of fdh1 in the ldh-deleted mutant caused lower final cell concentration and final pH after 16 h cultivation, and finally resulted in 86.8% of increase in hydrogen yield per mole consumed glucose. The analysis of cellular metabolites and estimated redox state balance in the fdhl-expressed strain showed that more excess

of reducing power was formed by ONO-7706 the rewired NADH regeneration pathway, changing the metabolic distribution and promoting the hydrogen production.”
“Residual disease after cytoreductive surgery is an important prognostic factor in patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Aggressive surgical procedures necessary to achieve maximal cytoreduction are inevitably associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality.\n\nTo determine causes of postoperative mortality (POM) after surgery for EOC all postoperative deaths in the southwestern part of the Netherlands over a 17-year period were identified and analysed by reviewing medical notes.\n\nBetween LY333531 mw 1989 and 2005, 2434 patients under-went cytoreductive surgery for EOC. Sixty-seven patients (3.1%) died within 30 days after surgery. Postoperative mortality increased with age from 1.5% (26/1765) for the age group 20-69 to 6.6% (32/486) for the age group 70-79 and 9.8% (18/183) for patients aged 80 years or older. Pulmonary failure (18%) and surgical site infection (15%) were the most common causes of death. Only a quarter of deaths resulted from surgical site complications.\n\nOur results suggest that causes of postoperative mortality after surgery for EOC are very heterogeneous.

The 5-year survivals for resected and unresected patients were 18

The 5-year survivals for resected and unresected patients were 18 and 0% (p = 0.01), respectively. A complete pathological response to neoadjuvant CRT was noted for 8 patients (13%). Margin and lymph node positivity was present in 5 (8%) and 15 (24%) patients, respectively. There was documented local recurrence in 8 (13%) and distant recurrence in 36 (58%) patients, with the liver being the most common

site. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based CRT had a limited impact on survival but appeared to be associated with improved local control. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“To clarify the biological rationale for social regulation of gene expression, this study sought to identify the specific immune cell types that are transcriptionally BLZ945 sensitive to subjective social isolation (loneliness). Using reference distributions for the expression of each human gene in each major leukocyte subtype, we mapped the cellular origin of transcripts JNK-IN-8 molecular weight found to be differentially expressed in the circulating immune cells

from chronically lonely individuals. Loneliness-associated genes derived primarily from plasmacytoid dendritic cells, monocytes, and, to a lesser extent, B lymphocytes. Those dynamics reflected per-cell changes in the expression of inducible genes and related more strongly to the subjective experience of loneliness than to objective social network size. Evolutionarily ancient myeloid antigen-presenting cells appear to have evolved a transcriptional sensitivity to socioenvironmental conditions that may allow them to shift basal gene expression profiles to counter the changing microbial threats associated with hostile vs. affine social conditions.”

The measurement of subepicardial adipose tissue thickness (SATT) has been found to be related to insulin resistance (IR) in adults. Until now, the association between SATT and IR has not been evaluated in obese prepubertal children. We aimed to determine the relation of SATT with clinical anthropometric and metabolic parameters and to provide MK-2206 manufacturer cutoff value of SATT associated with IR in obese prepubertal children.\n\nMethods: Fifty-two obese (mean age: 9.5 +/- 1.6 years, 29 female) and 31 lean prepubertal age- and gender-matched subjects (mean age: 9.2 +/- 1.4 years, 12 female) were evaluated by echocardiography. SATT was measured by transthoracic echocardiography.\n\nResults: SATT (6.54 +/- 1.38 mm) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (3.2 +/- 2) values of obese prepubertal subjects were significantly higher than those of the lean subjects (3.72 +/- 0.57 mm and 1.6 +/- 1) in the control group (both p < 0.001). Bivariate correlation analysis showed significant correlation between SATT, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skin fold (TSF) thickness, insulin, and HOMA-IR (r = 0.547, r = 0.524, r = 0.543, r = 0.431, r = 0.289, r = 0.402, r = 0.

In this review, we will discuss available data, advantages, limit

In this review, we will discuss available data, advantages, limitations and potential future of MRI in RA. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Proteolytic activity is required for several key processes in cancer development

and progression, including tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Accordingly, high levels of protease expression and activity OSI-906 inhibitor have been found to correlate with malignant progression and poor patient prognosis in a wide variety of human cancers. Members of the papain family of cysteine cathepsins are among the protease classes that have been functionally implicated in cancer. Therefore, the discovery of effective cathepsin inhibitors has considerable potential for anti-cancer therapy. In this selleck screening library study we describe the identification of a novel, reversible cathepsin inhibitor, VBY-825, which has high potency against cathepsins B, L, S and V. VBY-825 was tested

in a pre-clinical model of pancreatic islet cancer and found to significantly decrease tumor burden and tumor number. Thus, the identification of VBY-825 as a new and effective anti-tumor drug encourages the therapeutic application of cathepsin inhibitors in cancer. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of serum selleck kinase inhibitor amyloid A (SAA) in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and evaluation of clinical response to antibiotic therapy. We also aimed to compare the efficiency of SAA with that of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) in diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal sepsis in preterm infants.\n\nStudy Design: A total of 163 infants were enrolled in this prospective study. The infants were classified

into four groups: group 1 (high probable sepsis), group 2 (probable sepsis), group 3 (possible sepsis) and group 4 (no sepsis, control group). Blood samples for whole blood count, CRP, PCT, SAA and culture were obtained before initiating antibiotic treatment. This procedure was repeated three times at 48 h, 7 and 10 days.\n\nResult: Initial CRP, PCT and SAA levels were found to be positive in 73.2, 75.6 and 77.2% of all infants, respectively. Sensitivities of CRP, PCT and SAA at 0 h were 72.3, 74.8 and 76.4%, respectively. Although it was not statistically significant, SAA was found to be more sensitive than CRP and PCT in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. The area under the curve (AUC) for CRP, PCT and SAA at 0 h were 0.870, 0.870 and 0.875, respectively. Although the AUC for SAA at 0 h was higher than PCT and CRP, the difference was not statistically significant.\n\nConclusion: SAA is an accurate and reliable marker for diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal sepsis.

Unique recognition of test phantom configurations was achieved in

Unique recognition of test phantom configurations was achieved in the large majority of cases. The method in the general case was further tested using an exhaustive set of inhomogeneity and phantom tissues

and geometries where the phantom thicknesses ranged between 8 and 24 cm. Unique recognition of the test phantom configurations was achieved only for part of the phantom parameter space. The correlations between the remaining false positive recognitions were analyzed.\n\nConclusions: The concept of 3D proton radiography for tissue inhomogeneities of simple geometries was established with the current work. In contrast to conventional 2D proton radiography, the main objective of the demonstrated 3D technique is not proton range. Rather, it is to measure the depth and thickness of an inhomogeneity located in an imaged geometry. Further work is needed see more to extend and apply the method to more complex geometries. (C) 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.”
“A recent analysis of leukaemia mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors has applied descriptive models, collected together from previous studies, to derive

a joint excess relative risk estimate (ERR) by multi-model inference (MMI) (Walsh and Kaiser this website in Radiat Environ Biophys 50:21-35, 2011). The models use a linear-quadratic dose response with differing dose effect modifiers. In the present Metabolism inhibitor study, a set of more than 40 models has been submitted to a rigorous statistical selection procedure which fosters the parsimonious deployment of model parameters based on pairwise likelihood ratio tests. Nested models were

consequently excluded from risk assessment. The set comprises models of the excess absolute risk (EAR) and two types of non-standard ERR models with sigmoidal responses or two line spline functions with a changing slope at a break point. Due to clearly higher values of the Akaike Information Criterion, none of the EAR models has been selected, but two non-standard ERR models qualified for MMI. The preferred ERR model applies a purely quadratic dose response which is slightly damped by an exponential factor at high doses and modified by a power function for attained age. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study reports similar point estimates and confidence intervals (CI) of the ERR from MMI for doses between 0.5 and 2.5 Sv. However, at lower doses, the point estimates are markedly reduced by factors between two and five, although the reduction was not statistically significant. The 2.5 % percentiles of the ERR from the preferred quadratic-exponential model did not fall below zero risk in exposure scenarios for children, adolescents and adults at very low doses down to 10 mSv. Yet, MMI produced risk estimates with a positive 2.5 % percentile only above doses of some 300 mSv.

Crows were trained to manipulate an L-shaped hook to retrieve foo

Crows were trained to manipulate an L-shaped hook to retrieve food that was otherwise out of reach. After training, an opaque panel was Galunisertib nmr placed on the front window of the platform to block their vision, and the effects on tool use were tested

with respect to performance and movement trajectory. Vision blocking caused similar deviation of tool movement trajectories for both near and far targets, as well as far target-specific deviation. This suggests the involvement of vision in tool use by crows, specifically in the premanipulation process for conversion of vision-body coordinates for motor planning and in the process of tool manipulation. This is the first behavioral evidence for the involvement of vision in avian tool use. (C) 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“The variety of different causal theories together with inconsistencies about the anatomical brain markers emphasize the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. Attempts were made to test on a

behavioral level the existence of subtypes of dyslexia showing distinguishable cognitive deficits. Importantly, Selleckchem MLN8237 no research was directly devoted to the investigation of structural brain correlates of these subtypes. Here, for the first time, we applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to study grey matter volume (GMV) differences in a relatively large sample (n = 46) of dyslexic children split into three subtypes based on the cognitive

deficits: phonological, rapid naming, magnocellular/dorsal, and auditory attention shifting. VBM revealed GMV clusters specific for each studied group including areas of left inferior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, right putamen, and bilateral parietal cortex. In addition, using discriminant analysis on these clusters 79 % of cross-validated cases were correctly re-classified into four groups (controls vs. three subtypes). Current results indicate that dyslexia may result from distinct cognitive impairments characterized by distinguishable anatomical markers.”
“The search for metabolites SBE-β-CD order of Kibdelosporangium sp. AK-AA56 resulted in the discovery of novel N-phenylacetylated peptides, JBIR-78 (1) and JBIR-95 (2). Compounds 1 and 2 were established to be N-phenylacetylated heptapeptides by extensive NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configuration of the standard amino acids including a cysteic acid moiety was determined using Marfey’s method on the acid hydrolysates of 1 and 2. The relative and absolute configurations of a nonstandard amino acid, beta-hydroxyleucine, were elucidated using the J-based and modified Mosher’s methods, respectively. In an antimicrobial test, 1 showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus.”
“How does the brain compute? Answering this question necessitates neuronal connectomes, annotated graphs of all synaptic connections within defined brain areas.

2 in 2006 to 3 2 in 2036,

which is a 46% increase from th

2 in 2006 to 3.2 in 2036,

which is a 46% increase from the current level. The numbers of obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) and surgeons are expected to temporarily decline from their current level, whereas the number of OB/GYNs per 1000 births will still increase because of the declining number of births. The number of surgeons per 1000 population, even with the decreasing population, will decline temporarily over the next few years. If the percentage of female physicians continues to increase, the overall number of physicians will not be significantly affected, but in specialties with current very low female physician participation rates, such as surgery, the total number of physicians is expected to decline significantly.\n\nConclusion: At the current medical school enrollment capacity, the number of physicians per Apoptosis inhibitor AC220 price population is expected to continue to increase because of the skewed age distribution of physicians and the declining population in Japan. However, with changes in young physicians’ choices of medical

specialties and as the percentage of female physicians increases, patterns of physician supply will vary between specialties. Specialties less often chosen by young physicians and where males have dominated will face a decline in physician supply. These results highlight the necessity for developing a work environment that attracts female physicians to these types of specialties. This will also lead to improved gender equality in the workforce and more effective use of human resources.”
“Dynamics of the title reaction is investigated on an ab initio based potential energy surface using a full-dimensional quantum wave packet method within the centrifugal sudden approximation. It is shown that the reaction between H and HCN leads to both the hydrogen exchange and hydrogen abstraction channels. The exchange channel has a lower threshold and larger cross section than the abstraction channel. It also has more oscillations

due apparently to quantum resonances. Both channels are affected by long-lived resonances supported by potential wells. Comparison with experimental cross URMC-099 MAPK inhibitor sections indicates underestimation of the abstraction barrier height. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Macroscopic structures based on low-loss garnet films are an ideal model system for the space-resolved investigation of spin-wave dynamics. Here we investigate the dipolar eigenmodes of an in-plane magnetized garnet-film disk by means of scanning magneto-optical Faraday microscopy in the frequency domain. Due to the macroscopic dimensions of the studied samples, we have been able to image spatial profiles of the modes up to very high order. We find that the spatial distributions of the dynamic magnetization for the eigenmodes are strongly influenced by the intrinsic anisotropy of the dipolar spin-wave spectrum in an in-plane magnetized film.

In this review, we discuss the role

of the fourth pathway

In this review, we discuss the role

of the fourth pathway, known as the reactive oxygen driven tumor. The role of reactive oxygen in tumorigenesis is likely to relate to virtually all forms of cancer, and lends itself to selleck chemical specific therapies. These include blockade of reactive oxygen, resulting in decreased activation of NF-kappa B, which should sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiation. The phenotype of the reactive oxygen driven tumor can be monitored using available markers already in use in most hospital laboratories.”
“Objective: Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, used routinely in patients with coronary disease, can improve endothelial function but can have biphasic and dose-dependent effects on angiogenesis. In vitro evidence suggests that the proangiogenic effects of statins are linked to activation of Akt, a mediator of endothelial cell survival and an activator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. We investigated the functional and molecular effects of atorvastatin supplementation on microvascular function and the endogenous angiogenic response to chronic myocardial ischemia in normocholesterolemic swine.\n\nMethods:

Yucatan miniswine were fed a normal diet with (ATOR, n = 7) or without (control, n = 8) atorvastatin (1.5 mg/kg/d) for 20 weeks. Chronic ischemia was induced by ameroid constrictor placement around the circumflex artery. Myocardial perfusion was assessed at 3 and 7 weeks using GS-7977 ic50 isotope-labeled microspheres. In vitro microvessel relaxation responses and myocardial protein expression

were evaluated.\n\nResults: Endothelium-dependent relaxation to adenosine diphosphate and endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside were intact in both groups. The ATOR group demonstrated impaired microvessel relaxation to vascular endothelial growth factor (53% +/- 3% vs 70% +/- 7%, ATOR vs NORM at 10(-10) mol/L, P = .05) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (35% +/- 3% vs 57% +/- 5%, ATOR vs NORM at 10(-10) mol/L, P = .04). Baseline-adjusted myocardial perfusion in the ischemic circumflex territory was significantly Rho inhibitor reduced in the ATOR group (-0.29 +/- 0.10 mL/min/g vs NORM, P = .009). Phosphorylation of Akt was significantly increased in the ATOR group (+235% +/- 72%, P = .009 vs NORM), as was the myocardial expression of endostatin, an antiangiogenic protein (+ 51% +/- 9%, P < . 001 vs NORM). Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, Tie-2, fibroblast growth factor receptor-1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase was similar in both groups.\n\nConclusions: Atorvastatin supplementation is associated with impaired growth factor-mediated microvessel relaxation and a significant reduction in collateral-dependent perfusion.