The cure process (80-203 degrees C) was identified through the DS

The cure process (80-203 degrees C) was identified through the DSC curves. The kinetic parameters, activation energy (E), and Arrhenius parameter (A) for the samples containing 0.5-2% PET-R were calculated with the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method. With greater amounts of PET-R added, there was a small change in E for the curing process. A kinetic compensation effect, represented by the equation ln A = -10.5 AZD8186 supplier + 0.29E, was observed for all of the samples. The most suitable kinetic model to describe this curing process was the autocatalytic Sestak-Berggren model, which is applied to heterogeneous systems governed by nucleation and growth. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym

Sci 119: 1316-1321, 2011″
“Objective. The aim of this work was to compare the cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan measurements between buy BYL719 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snorers to develop a prediction model for OSA based on CBCT imaging and the Berlin questionnaire.

Study design. Eighty subjects ( 46 OSA patients with apnea-hypoapnea index [AHI] >= 10 and 34 snorers with AHI <10 based on ambulatory somnographic assessment) were recruited through flyers and mail at the University of Southern California School of Dentistry and at a private practice. Each patient answered the Berlin questionnaire, and was imaged with CBCT in supine position. Linear and volumetric measurements of the upper airway were

performed by one blinded operator, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for OSA.

Results. The OSA patients were predominantly male and older and had a larger neck size and larger body mass index than the snorers. The

minimum cross-sectional area of the upper airway and its lateral dimension were significantly smaller in the OSA patients. Airway uniformity defined as the minimum cross-sectional area divided by the average area was significantly smaller in the OSA patients.

Conclusions. Age >57 years, male gender, “”high risk”" on the Berlin questionnaire, and narrow upper airway lateral dimension (<17 mm) were identified as significant risk factors for OSA. The results of this study indicate that 3-dimensional CBCT airway analysis could be used as a tool to assess the presence and severity of OSA. Selleck Sapitinib The presence and severity ( as measured by the respiratory disturbance index) of OSA is associated with a narrow lateral dimension of the airway, increasing age, male gender, and high-risk Berlin questionnaire. ( Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 285-293)”
“We study the switching-process of the magnetization in a ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayer system by a spin polarized electrical current via the spin transfer torque. We use a spin drift-diffusion equation (SDDE) and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation (LLGE) to capture the coupled dynamics of the spin density and the magnetization dynamic of the heterostructure.

This study assessed the effectiveness of the P A R T Y Program i

This study assessed the effectiveness of the P.A.R.T.Y. Program in preventing traumatic injuries during a period of 10 years (1992-2004).

Methods: P.A.R.T.Y. participants (STUDY) were matched with subjects having the same age, gender, residential

area, and initial year in database, who did not attend the P.A.R.T.Y. Program selleck products (CONTROL). Data from hospital discharge database, and provincial health claims, were searched to determine the incidence of traumatic injuries in both groups. Statistical comparisons were made for the two groups, gender, calendar year, and before and after the graduating driver licensing system was implemented, using the chi(2) and conditional logistic regression analysis with a p < 0.05 considered significant.

Results: Of 3,905 P.A.R.T.Y.

participants, 1,281 were successfully randomly matched on the above 4 variables with 1,281 controls. The most frequent injury was injury by other or homicide 373 of 2,562 (14.8%). There were fewer traumatic injuries in the STUDY group than in the CONTROL group (43.3% AZD3965 inhibitor vs. 47.4%; p = 0.02; OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.45). This difference was stronger in females (44.4% vs. 49.0%; p = 0.04) and before the graduating driver licensing system implementation (60.1% vs. 67.2%; p = 0.04).

Conclusions: The P.A.R.T.Y. Program effectively reduced the incidence of traumatic injuries among its participants. This effectiveness was stronger among females and before the driver licensing system was implemented.”
“The transsphenoidal approach to the pituitary is widely used in pituitary surgery. Even though there are some landmarks for internal carotid artery (ICA) on the wall of the check details sphenoid sinus, it is not rare to get the artery injured during

surgery. We found that the most important landmark, carotid prominence, matched with ICA in merely 37.5% of subjects. In order to find a simple method to locate the artery, we made an anatomical measurement of the ICA and placed the results in a coordinate system. The sphenoid sinus opening is both the center of the endoscope entry in the anterior sinus wall and the origin of the coordinate system containing 3 orthogonal axes: x, y, and z. The x axis follows the body of the endoscope(out of the sphenoid sinus) parallel to the sagittal plane while z is perpendicular to the sagittal plane. Most of the measurements were obtained in the initial operative plane, which is perpendicular to the sagittal plane and contains the sinus opening and the midpoint of the pituitary fossa. We calculated the coordinates of the midpoint of the pituitary fossa and 4 ICA-related points. The depth of an ICA and the distance between 2 ICAs are also helpful in locating ICA.

The analysis of these data unambiguously revealed the presence of

The analysis of these data unambiguously revealed the presence of an additional and distinct “”He-assisted”" excitation mechanism in the He plasma, which was further suggested to be related to the He metastable excited state. The quenching effect was

therefore explained as a consequence of energy depletion of the He metastable excited state triggered by the Penning ionization process induced by the presence of nitrogen. This also explains the relatively insensitive response of the Zr and Ca emission intensity profiles to nitrogen addition despite GDC-0973 the increased plasma electron density resulting from the ionization process. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3058670]“
“Background: Geographical differences in disease prevalence and mortality have been described in the general population and in chronic kidney disease patients in Europe. In this secondary analysis of the Membrane Permeability Outcome (MPO) study, we addressed differences in patient and treatment patterns, and whether these affect patient outcomes.

Methods: Participating countries were grouped according to geographical location; thus study centers in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain were allocated to southern Europe (n=499), and those in all other countries (Belgium, Germany, Poland and Sweden) to northern Europe (n=148). Descriptive analysis of patient and treatment patterns at

study start, as well as survival analysis, was performed.

Results: In patients from the northern European countries, a higher prevalence of diabetes

mellitus and of cardiovascular disease was observed than in those from southern Europe (diabetes 35.1% vs. 21.0%, p=0.0007; cardiovascular disease 40.5% vs. 22.8%, p<0.0001). In northern Europe, 23% of patients started hemodialysis with a catheter for vascular access, while in southern check details European centers, only 13% did so (p=0.0042). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a lower probability for both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in southern Europe (log-rank test p<0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, a higher mortality risk was estimated for the northern European patients after adjustment for age, sex, membrane permeability, comorbidity index and vascular access (hazard ratio = 1.831; 95% confidence interval, 1.282-2.615; p=0.0009).

Conclusions: Our study patients from northern Europe showed a higher risk profile than those from southern Europe. However, only some of the factors can be modified in attempts to lower the mortality risk in this geographical area.”

To investigate the effect of altitude on perioperative opioid requirements in otherwise healthy children.


To investigate whether children living and having surgery at high altitude received different doses of fentanyl than those living and having surgery at sea level.

In univariate Cox regression analyses, age, cardiovascular diseas

In univariate Cox regression analyses, age, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, increased CAC score, increased comorbidity score and decreased hip BMD were associated with mortality. Low hip BMD remained independently associated with mortality after adjustments for cardiovascular

risk factors, comorbidity score and CAC score. Patients with BMD in the lowest tertile had the worst survival. Conclusion: Low hip BMD predicted mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients independent of CAC. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“In order to identify ginsenoside composition in native ginseng, cell, hairy root and adventitious root, the ESI-MSn analysis was performed. Rg(1), Re, Ro, Malonyl-Rb-1, Rb-1, Rc, Rb-2 and Rd were identified from ginseng tissue cultures on the basis of LC-MSn analysis. The content of total saponins in adventitious root was much higher than that in other tissue cultures. Cluster analysis AZD6094 order showed that the quality of adventitious check details root was mostly similar with native ginseng. During the 51 bioreactor culture of ginseng adventitious root, the maximum dry weight and total saponin were achieved on day 40 and 30, respectively. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) increased quickly within the first 10 days. After day 10, SOUR showed a sharp

drop and was almost zero after 20 days. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and the proliferation of splenocytes from mice in response to concanavalin A (ConA) were used to evaluate the effects of native ginseng root (NGR) and ginseng adventitious root (GAR) on cellular immune response. As the result, GAR possessed a similar cellular immuno-regulation as NGR had. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

To synthesize hybrid benzimidazolyl-chalcone derivatives, evaluate JNK-IN-8 order their anthelmintic activity, and establish some structural elements which could lead to induction and enhancement of this activity.

Methods: A series of 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-aryl-2-propen-1-one compounds (6a-z) was synthesized by condensation reaction of 2-acetylbenzimidazole with aryl and heteroaryl aldehyde derivatives. The physicochemical characterization of these benzimidazolyl-chalcones was carried out by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). All compounds were screened in vitro for their nematicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus in larval development assay. The anthelmintic activities obtained were compared with those of anthelmintic reference drugs (fenbendazole and ivermectin); 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one also used as reference for chalcone.

Results: Compounds 6a, 6g, 6w and 6y showed good nematicidal activity (LC(100)) at 0.002 and 0.0092 mu g/ml. The activity of these four benzimidazolyl-chalcones is nearly equal to that of fenbendazole.

“Twenty-five per cent of individuals infected with

“Twenty-five per cent of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are able to clear HCV spontaneously. Differences in host genetics are believed to affect the outcome of HCV infection. We analysed an exonic, a promoter and an intronic VX-661 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the interferon-lambda 3 coding interleukin (IL)-28B gene to study the relationship between IL28B SNPs and outcome of HCV infection. Among 206 HIV-1-infected Europeans with evidence of HCV infection, 47 (23%) individuals had cleared HCV and 159 (77%) had developed chronic infection. The exonic rs8103142 CT, the promoter

rs12979860 CT and the intronic rs11881222 AG genotypes were associated with a decreased HCV clearance rate with adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.7), 0.4 (95% CI, 0.2-0.8) and 0.4 (95% CI, 0.2-0.8), respectively. The haplotype block TCG CTA was associated with a decreased HCV clearance rate (aOR 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.8). Further, we found significant differences in HCV RNA levels among individuals

chronically infected with HCV genotype 1 for rs8103142 and rs12979860 (P < 0.05). Chronically infected individuals with HCV genotype 3 and with the favourable Rabusertib concentration haplotype block CTA CTA had higher median HCV RNA levels than individuals with unfavourable haplotype blocks (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that IL28B may account for some differences in HCV outcome but that other factors including the viral genotype, host genetics and the host-virus interaction are likely to influence the outcome of HCV infection.”
“Approximately 2.5 million people worldwide are clinically blind because of diabetic retinopathy. In the non-proliferative stage, the pathophysiology of this ocular manifestation of diabetes presents as morphological and

functional disruption of the retinal vasculature, and dysfunction of retinal neurons. However, it is uncertain whether the vascular and neuronal changes are interdependent or independent events. In addition, the identity Selleck Tozasertib of the retinal neurons that are most susceptible to the hyperglycaemia associated with diabetes is unclear. Here, we characterise a novel model of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in adult zebrafish, in which the zebrafish were subjected to oscillating hyperglycaemia for 30 days. Visual function is diminished in hyperglycaemic fish. Significantly, hyperglycaemia disrupts cone photoreceptor neurons the most, as evidenced by prominent morphological degeneration and dysfunctional cone-mediated electroretinograms. Disturbances in the morphological integrity of the blood-retinal barrier were also evident. However, we demonstrate that these early vascular changes are not sufficient to induce cone photoreceptor dysfunction, suggesting that the vascular and neuronal complications in diabetic retinopathy can arise independently. Current treatments for diabetic retinopathy target the vascular complications.

This series summarizes the most important manuscripts, as selecte

This series summarizes the most important manuscripts, as selected by the Editor, that have been published in the Circulation portfolio. The objective of this new series is to provide our readership with a timely, comprehensive selection BEZ235 of important papers that are relevant to the quality and outcomes

as well as general cardiology audience. The studies included in this article represent the most significant research in the area of cardiovascular disease in women. (Circ Cardiovasc Quality and Outcomes. 2013; 6: e1-e7.)”
“Study design: Literature review.

Objectives: Globally map non-traumatic spinal cord injury (NTSCI) incidence, prevalence, survival, level of injury and aetiology. Propose a research framework for NTSCI prevention and launch a repository

of NTSCI data.

Setting: Initiative of the International Spinal Cord Society Prevention Committee.

Methods: Literature search of Medline and Embase (1959-June 2011). Relevant articles in any language learn more regarding adults with NTSCI were included. Stratification of information about incidence and prevalence into green/yellow/orange/red data quality ‘zones’ and comparisons between World Health Organisation (WHO) regions and countries.

Results: Three hundred and seventy-seven abstracts reviewed-45 of these from 24 countries in 12 of the 21 WHO global regions had relevant information. Only one publication had survival data. Prevalence data for NTSCI existed for only two countries, India (prevalence of 2 310/million population, Kashmir region) and Canada (prevalence of 1 120/million population). The incidence rates for

WHO regions were: Asia Pacific, high income 20/million population/year; Australasia (26/million population/year); Western Europe median of 6/million population/year; North America, high income median 76/million population/year (based on poor-quality studies); and Oceania 9/million population/year. Developed countries tended to have a higher proportion of cases with degenerative conditions and tumours. Developing countries, in comparison, tended to have a higher proportion of infections, particularly tuberculosis and HIV, although a number ATPase inhibitor also reported tumours as a major cause.

Conclusions: Insufficient survival, prevalence and incidence data are a predominant finding of this review. The piecemeal approach to epidemiological reporting of NTSCI, particularly failing to include sound regional population denominators, has exhausted its utility. Minimum data collection standards are required.”
“In addition to its known classical roles, the renin angiotensin system (RAS) has more subtle functions which include the regulation of emotional responses. Previous studies regarding the anxiety related behavior of RAS have showed controversial results. There is also evidence that oxidative stress accompanies angiotensin II infusion, but the role of AT1/AT2 specific receptors is not clear.

We reviewed

the long-term results of 41 treated super-mor

We reviewed

the long-term results of 41 treated super-morbid-obese patients. Mean initial BMI was 59.5 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2). Twelve patients (29.3 %) achieved after only LSG a BMI < 35 kg/m(2) (mean 31.9 +/- 2). They have lost 78.7 +/- 11.8 % of excess body weight (EBW). The remaining 28 patients lost 48.1 +/- 11.9 % of EBW and achieved a mean BMI of 44.2 +/- 4.3 kg/m(2), thus requiring the second stage. Ten of them (24.4 % of the total or 35.7 % of those in need), were submitted to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). They lost 71.9 +/- 4.3 % of EBW and have a mean BMI of 33.6 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2). The 18 remaining patients have a BMI of 42 +/- 3.6 kg/m(2) and they still suffer from morbid obesity. They have lost 48.5 +/- 8.7 % of EBW. The mean rate of EBW loss for all the available 39 patients LY2835219 inhibitor after either LSG or both LSG and LRYGBP has been 63.2 +/- 16.5 % after a mean follow-up of 42.8 +/- 19.5 months. Out of 41 patients, 1 died, 1 was lost to follow-up, 21 (51.2 %) achieved “”healthy”" BMIs and 18 (44 %) still require LRYGBP. The rate of cure of morbid obesity was 51.2 %. A remaining 44 % of super-morbid obese patients still need the completion LRYGBP but

have not undergone it. Half of these patients have lost > 50 % of their EBW. The two-stage strategy is an effective treatment plan for super-morbid obesity. A less patient-dependent strategy may be needed for a subset of patients.”
“Background: Clinical metabolomics is a recent “”omic”" technology which is defined as a global holistic overview of the personal metabolic status (fingerprinting). This technique allows to prove metabolic differences in different groups of people with Liproxstatin-1 the opportunity to explore interactions such as genotype-phenotype and genotype-environment type, whether normal or pathological. Aim: To study chronic kidney injury 1) using urine metabolomic profiles of young adults born extremely low-birth weight (ELBW) and 2) correlating a biomarker of kidney injury, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

selleck chemicals (NGAL), in order to confirm the metabolomic injury profile. Method: Urine samples were collected from a group of 18 people (mean: 24-year-old, std: 4.27) who were born with ELBW and a group of 13 who were born at term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) as control (mean 25-year-old, std: 5.15). Urine samples were analyzed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and then submitted to unsupervised and supervised multivariate analysis. Urine NGAL (uNGAL) was measured using ARCHITECT (ABBOTT diagnostic NGAL kit). Results: With a multivariate approach and using a supervised analysis method, PLS-DA, (partial least squares discriminant analysis) we could correlate ELBW metabolic profiles with uNGAL concentration. Conversely, uNGAL could not be correlated to AGA. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the relevance of the metabolomic technique as a predictive tool of the metabolic status of exELBW.

Safety was assessed across 12months Results Mean total treatment

Safety was assessed across 12months. Results Mean total treatment volume (107 patients) was 4.7mL of CaHA. At all points, physicians reported satisfaction of 75% or more, with 92% satisfaction at 12months. Most patients also reported being satisfied at all time points, with 80% satisfied at 12months. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Midface volumizing with CaHA results in high physician and patient satisfaction up to 12months from treatment.”
“BACKGROUND: The number of patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes will increase

dramatically over the next decade. Diabetes has been related to accelerated atherosclerosis and many patients with diabetes will require coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery Selleck AC220 utilizing saphenous vein grafts. After CABG, accelerated atherosclerosis in saphenous vein grafts leads to graft failure in approximately 50% of cases over a 10-year period. Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, has been shown to improve multiple metabolic parameters selleck in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, its role in the prevention of atherosclerosis progression is uncertain.

STUDY DESIGN: Veln-Coronary aTherOsclerosis and Rosiglitazone after bypass surgery (VICTORY) is a cardiometabolic trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes, one to 10 years after CABG, will be randomly assigned to receive rosiglitazone

(up) to 8 mg/day) or a placebo after qualifying angiography and intravascular ultrasound of a segment of one vein graft with or without a native anastomosed coronary artery. A comprehensive set of athero-thrombo-inflammatory markers will be serially assessed during the 12-month follow-tip period. Body fat distribution and body composition will be assessed by computed tomography and dual energy x-ray absorpriometry, respectively, at baseline, six months and 12 months follow-up. For atherosclerosis progression evaluation, repeat angiography and intravascular ultrasound will be performed

after 12 months follow-tip. The primary end point of the study will be the change in atherosclerotic plaque volume in a 40 mm or longer segment of one vein graft.

CONCLUSIONS: The VICTORY trial is the first cardiometabolic PF-00299804 study to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic and metabolic effects of rosiglitazone in post-CABG patients with type 2 diabetes.”
“Background Mid-face reflation requires a sophisticated knowledge of bony and soft tissue anatomy. Objective To blend knowledge of the relevant anatomy with clinical experience to generate procedural guidelines for reproducible volumization of the midface. Methods and Materials A demonstration of cadaver head dissection was followed by injection of colored hyaluronic acid and calcium hydroxylapatite fillers into cadaver heads in the anatomy laboratory. The injected cadaver heads were then dissected to assess the anatomical position of the injected fillers. Live patient injections followed using the anatomic learning.

(C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS All rights reserved “
“A green

(C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the mobilization of phosphorus from Senegalese natural rock phosphate (NRP) for growth of Gliricidia sepium and Sesbania sesban seedlings. Levels of tested NRP were compatible with high

AM fungal proliferation but modified pattern of root colonization according to plant cultivar and fungal species. NRP NVP-HSP990 applications and AM inoculation positively stimulated growth parameters and shoot mineral mass of G. sepium and S. sesban after four months cultivation. More than 200% of weight gains in S. sesban were recorded with all AM fungi combined with 600 or 800 mg NRP. With Gliricidia, only Glomus aggregatum in presence with these high

NRP levels induced the same tendency. Glomus fasciculatum enhanced twice height growth of Sesbania in presence of 400, 600 and 800 mg NRP. The impact of dual application of AM fungi and NRP on nutritional content was more marked with Sesbania than in Gliricidia seedlings.”
“Treatment with TNF alpha inhibitors increases risk of reactivating a latent tuberculosis\infection (LTBI). Therefore screening, prior to therapy with TNF alpha inhibitors, has been AG-14699 recommended, even in low-endemic areas such as well-developed Western Europe countries. We evaluated interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), as opposed to tuberculin skin test (TST), for detection of LTBI in refractory inflammatory disease patients prior to the initiation of a first TNF alpha inhibitor. In addition, we evaluated the impact of impaired cellular immunity on IGRA. Patients starting on TNF alpha inhibition were screened for LTBI by TST and IGRA (Quantiferon-TB Gold). Data on tuberculosis exposure and Bacillus Calmette-Gu,rin (BCG) vaccination were obtained. Cellular immunity was assessed by CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count. Nine out

of 56 patients (16.1%) tested positive for LTBI. A concordant positive result was present in three patients with a medical history of tuberculosis exposure. Six patients with discordant test results had either: (1) a negative TST and positive IGRA in combination with a medical history of tuberculosis exposure (n = 1) or (2) a positive TST and negative IGRA in combination with BCG vaccination (n = 3) or a medical history of tuberculosis exposure (n = 2). CD4(+) T lymphocyte selleck inhibitor cell counts were within normal limits, and no indeterminate results of IGRA were present. IGRA appears reliable for confirming TST and excluding a false positive TST (due to prior BCG vaccination) in this Dutch serie of patients. In addition, IGRA may detect one additional case of LTBI out of 56 patients that would otherwise be missed using solely TST. Immune suppression appears not to result significantly in lower CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell counts and indeterminate results of IGRA, despite systemic corticosteroid treatment in half of the patients.

“Aims: To evaluate whether changes in opening

“Aims: To evaluate whether changes in opening PLX4032 inhibitor detrusor pressure (ODP) are associated with resolution of overactive bladder symptoms in women undergoing surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse. Methods: Forty women with DO and OAB together with anterior wall prolapse who underwent a repair between 2003 and 2007 were studied. Each woman was assessed pre- and post-operatively with a clinical assessment and cystometry. Opening pressures were recorded pre- and post-operatively for each patient by retrospective review of the pressure

flow traces. Patients were divided into those who experienced resolution of OAB symptoms and those with persistent OAB symptoms. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test was used LY2835219 nmr to assess any change in opening pressures between these groups. Results: Resolution of urgency with an anterior repair was associated with a significant fall in ODP from a mean of 27.9 to 11.7 cm H(2)O(P = 0.01). There was no significant preoperative difference in ODP between women in whom urgency resolved and those in whom it did not. Conclusion: These results suggest that a fall

in ODP is associated with resolution of urgency in women undergoing prolapse surgery. This may imply that decreased urethral resistance is of importance in symptom resolution. Neurourol. Urodynam. 30:595-598, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Purpose: The aim of this work was to determine the content of total phenols, total flavonoids, anthocyanins, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.) alcohol, hydroalcohol Liproxstatin-1 and aqueous extracts.

Methods: The content of total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins of the alcohol, hydroalcohol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant assay was based on the measurement of DPPH absorbance at 517 nm caused by the reaction of DPPH

with the test sample. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition against selected test microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella abony while antifungal activity was tested against two organisms: Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans.

Results: The results of spectrophotometric investigations indicate that the content of total phenol compounds in the investigated extracts varied from 2.12 to 30.63 mg GAE g(-1) of fresh hawthorn sample. The content of anthocyanins ranged from 0.3207 to 3.168 mg of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside g(-1) of fresh hawthorn fruit. The fruit extracts showed high antioxidant activity with DPPH radical transformation value as high as 89.9 % in the methanol-water (50/50, v/v%)) extract. The ethanol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against all test microorganisms except two, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and one species of fungi, Aspergillus niger.