Materials and Methods: A total of 352 NSCLC patients were enrolled to evaluate the associations of the six SNPs with response to chemotherapy and overall survival. Logistic regressions were applied to test the associations of genetic polymorphisms
with response to chemotherapy in 161 advanced NSCLC patients. Overall survival was analyzed in 161 advanced and 156 early stage NSCLC patients using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was performed to determine the factors independently associated with NSCLC prognosis. Results: BRCA1 rs1799966 minor allele C (TC+CC vs. TT, OR = 0.402, 95% CI = 0.204-0.794, p = 0.008) and MDR1/ABCB1 rs1045642 minor allele A (GA + AA vs. GG, OR = 0.478, 95% CI = 0.244-0.934, p = 0.030) were associated with a better response to chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC find more patients. Survival analyses indicated that BRCA1 rs1799966 TC+CC genotypes were associated with a decreased risk of death (HR = 0.617, 95% CI = 0.402-0.948, p = 0.028) in advanced NSCLC patients, and the association was still significant after the adjustment for covariates. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that ERCC1 rs11615 AA genotype (P = 0.020) and smoking (p = 0.037) were associated with increased risks of
Ilomastat death in early stage NSCLC patients after surgery. Conclusions: Polymorphisms of genes in DNA repair pathway and MDR1 could contribute to chemotherapy response and survival of patients with NSCLC.”
A previous report has identified a significantly higher sensitivity of cancer detection for dedicated grasping basket than brushing at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Geenen brush and Dormia basket cytology in the differential diagnosis of bile duct stricture. METHOD: The current study enrolled one hundred and fourteen patients who underwent ERCP with both Geenen brush and Dormia basket cytology for the differential diagnosis of bile duct stricture at our institution between January 2008 CRT0066101 and December 2012. RESULTS: We adopted sequential performances of cytologic samplings by using initial Geenen brush and subsequent Dormia basket cytology in 59 patients and initial Dormia basket and subsequent Geenen brush cytology in 55 patients. Presampling balloon dilatations and biliary stentings for the stricture were performed in 17 (14.9%) and 107 patients (93.9%), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of Geenen brush cytology for the diagnosis of malignant bile duct stricture were 75.0%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 66.7% and 83.
invadens, and B. invadens is able to project to the core range of B. dorsalis s.s. The ENMs of both Bactrocera dorsalis and B. dorsalis combined with B. philipenesis and B. papayae have significantly higher predictive ability to capture the distribution points in South Africa than for B. invadens alone.\n\nConclusions/Significance: Consistent with other studies proposing these
Bactrocera species as conspecific, niche similarity and overlap between these species is high. Considering these other Bactrocera dorsalis complex species simultaneously better describes the range expansion and invasion potential of B. invadens in South Africa. We suggest that these species should be considered the same-at least functionally-and global quarantine and management strategies applied equally to these Bactrocera
“We report the synthesis, crystal structure, solid-state dynamics, and photo-physical properties Selleck Raf inhibitor of 6,13-bis((4-(3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-3,3-diphenylprop-1-yn-1-yl)phenyl)-ethynyl)-5,7,12,14-tetrahydro-5,14:7,12-bis([ 1,2]benzeno)pentacene (1), a molecular dirotor with a 1,4-bis((4-ethynylphenyl)ethynyl)benzene (BEPEB) chromophore. The incorporation of a pentiptycene into the molecular dirotor provides a central stator and a fixed phenylene ring relative to which the two flanking ethynylphenylene rotators can explore various torsion angles; this allows the BEPEB fluorophore dynamics to persist in the solid state. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that molecular dirotor
Nocodazole purchase 1 is packed so that all the BEPEB fluorophores adopt a parallel alignment, this is ideal for the development of functional materials. Variable temperature, quadrupolar echo H-2 NMR studies have shown that phenylene rotator flipping has an activation energy of 9.0 kcal/mol and a room temperature flipping frequency of similar to 2.6 MHz. Lastly, solution, glasses, and crystals, we obtained evidence that the fluorescence excitation and emission spectra phenyleneethynylene chromophores is dependent on the extent of conjugation between the phenylene rings, as determined by their relative dihedral angles. This work provides a promising starting point for the development Nutlin-3 Apoptosis inhibitor of molecular dirotors with polar groups whose amphidynamic nature will allow for the rapid shifting of solid-state absorption, fluorescence, and birefringence, in response to external electric fields.”
“Porous structures are becoming more and more important in biology and material science because they help in reducing the density of the grafted material. For biomaterials, porosity also increases the accessibility of cells and vessels inside the grafted area. However, descriptors of porosity are scanty. We have used a series of biomaterials with different types of porosity (created by various porogens: fibers, beads …). Blocks were studied by microcomputed tomography for the measurement of 3D porosity.
Expression of delta-catenin
Adriamycin concentration induces filopodia-like protrusions in neurons. Here we show that the small GTPases of the Rho family act coordinately as downstream effectors of delta-catenin. A dominant negative Rac prevented delta-catenin-induced protrusions, and Cdc42 activity was dramatically increased by delta-catenin expression. A kinase dead LIMK (LIM kinase) and a mutant Cofilin also prevented delta-catenin-induced protrusions. To link the effects of delta-catenin to a physiological pathway, we noted that (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors induced dendritic protrusions that are very similar to those induced by delta-catenin. Furthermore, delta-catenin RNA-mediated interference can block the induction of dendritic protrusions by DHPG. Interestingly, DHPG dissociated PSD-95 and N-cadherin from the delta-catenin complex, increased the association of delta-catenin with Cortactin, and induced the phosphorylation of delta-catenin within the sites that bind to these protein partners.”
were to evaluate the effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on tight junctions (TJ) in cultured rat Sertoli cells (SC) and to investigate changes in the signal transduction pathways in SCs following MEHP treatment. SCs were isolated and purified from the testes of 18-day-old Sprague Dawley rats and incubated at 34 degrees C for AZD1208 3 days. After treatment of SCs with either the vehicle or MEHP for 0.5, 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours, whole cell lysates were isolated from each replicate to prepare RNA and protein. Expression levels of claudin-11, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNA were evaluated by quantitative real-time
reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction Selleck Fludarabine and changes in signal transduction pathways possibly induced by MEHP treatment were assessed by Western blot analyses. MEHP treatment led to significant decreases in the expression of claudin-11 and occludin mRNA, but not that of ZO-1, in rat SCs. Exposure of rat SCs to MEHP resulted in the marked induction of phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MARK), whereas other pathways examined in this study were not activated by MEHP. Furthermore, treatment of rat SCs with a specific inhibitor of p44/42 MARK prevented the MEHP-induced down-regulation of claudin-11 and occludin. These findings demonstrate that MEHP exposure inhibited the expression of claudin-11 and occludin mRNA in rat SCs through the p44/42 MARK pathway, suggesting the possible involvement of MEHP in spermatogenic function by regulating major components of TJs in SCs.”
This review underscores the emerging theme that deregulated PCP signaling contributes to tumorigenesis, providing new potential targets for cancer therapy. [Mol Cancer Ther 2009;8(8):2103-9]“
“Aims: In this study, we evaluated whether catechins could inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators induced by dental caries-related bacteria, Streptococci, or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) stimulation in human Selleckchem JNK-IN-8 dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPF). We further determined the mechanisms
of the anti-inflammatory activity of catechins.\n\nMain methods: Streptococci or PAMP-stimulated HDPF were treated with catechin, and then the expression and production of pro-inflammatory mediators were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. Furthermore, the signal transduction pathways activated with toll-like receptor (TLR)2 ligand were assessed by Immunoblot and ELISA using blocking assay with specific inhibitors.\n\nKey findings: Increased expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators are found in inflamed dental pulp, especially in HDPF. We recently reported that dental pulpal innate immune responses may mainly result from the predominantly-expressed TLR2 signaling. Catechins, polyphenolic compounds click here in green tea, exert protective and healing effects through multiple mechanisms, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there
are no reports concerning the effects of catechins on dental pulp. In this study, we demonstrated that the up-regulated expressions of IL-8 or PGE(2) in Streptococci or PAMP-stimulated HDPF were inhibited by catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin BLZ945 chemical structure gallate (EGCG). In TLR2 ligand-stimulated HDPF, specific inhibitors of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38, c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK), NF-kappa B or catechins markedly reduced the level of pro-inflammatory mediators and the phosphorylation of these signal
transduction molecules was suppressed by catechins.\n\nSignificance: These findings suggest that catechins might be useful therapeutically as an anti-inflammatory modulator of dental pulpal inflammation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The complete molecule of title compound, C58H58P4, is generated by a crystallographic twofold rotation axis that passes through the center of the C(methine)-C(methine) bond of length 1.582 (4) angstrom The C-P bond lengths are 1.8824 (19) and 1.8991 (19) angstrom. The P-C-P angle of 109.69 (9)degrees is essentially equal to the expected value of 109.5 degrees for a tetrahedral C atom. Although the C(methine) P-C(aromatic) bond angles range from 102.67 (9) to 107.04 (9)degrees, the C(aromatic)-P-C(aromatic) bond angles of 96.72 (9) and 97.29 (9)degrees are significantly smaller.
\n\nResults: Hernia complications developed in 25% of patients (14 of 57) after TIPS creation at a mean presentation of 62 days (range, 2-588 d). Thirteen complications
(93%) required emergent surgery, of Which four (29%) requited bowel resection for necrosis. There were no resulting deaths. Ninety-eight percent of patients with a hernia complication had the procedure to treat refractory ascites. FK506 The indication of refractory ascites was significantly associated with the risk of a, hernia complication (P = .002).\n\nConclusions: A 25% incidence of hernia complications following TIPS Creation in patients being treated for refractory ascites is’ higher than expected; emergent surgery is required in most cases. Further investigation to formulate a plan for elective management is warranted.”
“The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) plays an important role in normal ovarian physiology. During each reproductive cycle, the OSE takes part in the cyclical ovulatory ruptures and repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors, tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) and p75, in the OSE cells of the wild ground squirrels during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. There were marked variations in ovarian weight and size between the breeding and the nonbreeding seasons. Histologically, cuboidal
cells and squamous cells were identified in the OSE of both Selleckchem HDAC inhibitor seasons. Yet, stronger immunostaining of NGF, TrkA and p75 were observed in cuboidal cells and squamous cells in the breeding season as compared to the non-breeding season. In addition, plasma gonadotropin concentrations were higher in the breeding season than in the non-breeding season, suggesting that the expression
patterns of NGF, TrkA and p75 in the OSE were correlated with changes in plasma gonadotropins. These findings suggested that NGF and its receptor TrkA and p75 may S3I-201 supplier be involved in the regulation of seasonal changes in the OSE of wild ground squirrel.”
“HIV-1 subtype D (HIV-1D) progresses to disease faster and has lower transmissibility than subtype A (HIV-1A). We examined whether these differences could lead to a population level change in the distribution of these subtypes over time. HIV-1 viral RNA was extracted from stored serum samples from HIV-positive subjects participating in a population-based cohort study in Rakai, Uganda in 1994 and 2002. Portions of the viral proteins gag and gp41 were sequenced and subtyped. HIV-1 subtype assignments were generated for 773 subjects in 1994 and 812 subjects in 2002. The change in subtype distribution of the population as a whole as well as quartile age groups were examined for significant changes using a linear model. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of subjects infected with HIV-1D from 70.2% to 62.4% and a significant increase in subjects infected with HIV-1A from 16.7% to 23.3% over the 8-year period (p = 0.005).
We also analyzed clinical significance in AURKA mRNA expression levels in OSCC.\n\nResults: AURKA was overexpressed in human OSCC cell lines and tissues. All siAURKAs almost completely STA-9090 suppressed the expression of AURKA protein, and significantly inhibited the growth of OSCC cells by 31-89%. MLN8237 also reduced the cellular growth rate by 38-74%. Both siAURKA and MLN8237 significantly reduced
the size of subcutaneously xenografted OSCC tumors by 66% and 40%. Knockdown of AURKA expression and MLN8237 induced the growth inhibition of primary cultured cells established from patients’ OSCC tumors. Furthermore, we found a significant association between AURKA mRNA expression levels and histological differentiation and lymph node metastasis.\n\nConclusions: AURKA plays a critical role in the
growth of human OSCC cells and targeting AURKA may be a useful therapeutic strategy for OSCC. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A method for thermal conversion of raw organic waste (ROW) to a compost-like material (CLM) with higher levels of unsaturated carbohydrates, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds was developed, in which rice bran and an organo-iron compound were employed as a model ROW and the accelerator, respectively. To evaluate the qualities of CLMs, organic substances of an acid insoluble fraction of alkaline extracts (AIAEs) from a CLM were structurally characterized by elemental analysis, pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FT-IR. The levels of unsaturated carbohydrates, and nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds in the CLM samples AZD1480 in vitro were increased by long-term treatment (60 degrees C for 5 days, 170 degrees C for 3 days). p38 MAPK inhibitor In particular, the high lipid content of the AIAEs, which was indicative of inadequate digestion of CLM components, was dramatically reduced in the presence of the accelerator. (C) 2010
Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Horse racing is a contest between horses, usually held for the purpose of betting. Thoroughbred horse racing is the most diffused form of horse racing throughout the world. Thoroughbred is one of the most versatile of horse breeds and has influenced the development of many other breeds, Thoroughbred horses served as a foundation stock for the development of the light horse breeds. The two types of horse racing are flat racing and jumping races/steeplechases. The measures of racing performance are broadly classified into three categories. They are time and its several variations, handicap or similar performance ratings and earnings. One common measure of the performance of racehorses evaluated genetically is racing time or final time. The heritability estimates differed according to method of estimation, age, sex, track and distance. Time measure generally had a heritability in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 with the higher values for shorter races.
“Emulsion-based crystallization to produce spherical crystalline agglomerates (SAs) is an attractive route to control
crystal size during downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, conventional methods of emulsification in stirred vessels pose several problems that limit the utility of emulsion-based crystallization. In this paper, we use capillary microfluidics AZD9291 chemical structure to generate monodisperse water-in-oil emulsions. Capillary microfluidics, in conjunction with evaporative crystallization on a flat heated surface, enables controllable production of uniformly sized SAs of glycine in the 35-150 mu m size range. We report detailed characterization of particle size, size distribution, structure, and polymorphic
form. Further, online high-speed stereomicroscopic observations reveal several clearly demarcated stages in the dynamics of glycine crystallization from emulsion droplets. Rapid droplet shrinkage is followed by crystal nucleation within individual droplets. Once a nucleus is formed within a droplet, crystal growth is very rapid (<0.1 s) and occurs linearly along radially advancing fronts at speeds of up to 1 mm/s, similar to spherulitic crystal growth from impure melts. The spherulitic aggregate thus formed ages to yield the final SA morphology. Overall crystallization times are on the order of minutes, as compared to hours in conventional batch processes. We discuss these phenomena and their implications GNS-1480 ic50 for the development of more generalized processes applicable to a variety of drug molecules. This work paves the way for microfluidics-enabled continuous spherical crystallization processes.”
“Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify the risk factors associated with passenger decisions to ride with a driver who is under the influence of either alcohol or cannabis. Method: We analyzed data from the 2008 Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey see more (CADUMS), a nationally represented telephone sample of 16,672 Canadians age 15 and older, of whom 60.5% were female. Logistic regression
analyses explored the effects of sociodemographic, substance use, and driving-behavior factors on the risk of riding with a drinking driver (RWDD) and riding with a cannabis-impaired driver (RWCD). Results: Risk factors for RWDD and RWCD were both shared and unique. Common risk factors were respondents’ age, with young people at increased risk and those 65 years and older at decreased risk, and problematic alcohol use (as measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test subscales). Having previously driven under the influence of alcohol increased the risk of RWDD, while RWCD was associated with having previously driven under the influence of cannabis. Conclusions: Considerable legal and public health attention has been devoted to eliminating impaired driving, with particular focus on driver behavior.
Eurythermic members of these elements, however, probably survived the Last Glacial Maximum in favourable microsites, extending their ranges during the Holocene from these local sources.\n\nMain selleck inhibitor conclusions\n\nOur results confirm the Holocene persistence of wooded steppe in the Great Hungarian Plain, disprove the ‘Boreal steppe’ theory, and suggest an Early Holocene period of greater vegetation openness between 11,400 and 9900 cal. yr bp. Evidence for
the post-glacial immigration of south-eastern steppe elements into the Carpathian Basin is equivocal: the last glacial/interglacial presence of several southern steppe species suggests that the Hungarian Plain hosted Vorinostat in vivo suitable habitats for them during warm and cold phases alike.”
“Cell capacity for cytosolic NADPH regeneration by NADP-dehydrogenases was investigated in the leaves of two hybrid poplar (Populus deltoidesxPopulus nigra) genotypes in response to ozone (O3) treatment (120ppb for 17days). Two genotypes with differential O3 sensitivity were selected, based on visual symptoms and fallen leaves: Robusta (sensitive) and Carpaccio (tolerant). The estimated O3 flux (POD0), that entered the leaves, was similar for the two genotypes throughout
the treatment. In response to that foliar O3 flux, CO2 assimilation was inhibited to the same extent for the two genotypes, which could be explained by a decrease in Rubisco (EC 18.104.22.168) activity. Conversely, an increase in PEPC (EC 22.214.171.124) activity was observed, together selleckchem with the activation of certain cytosolic NADP-dehydrogenases above their constitutive level, i.e. NADP-G6PDH (EC 126.96.36.199), NADP-ME (malic enzyme) (EC 188.8.131.52) and NADP-ICDH (NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase) (EC184.108.40.206). However, the activity of non-phosphorylating NADP-GAPDH (EC 220.127.116.11) remained unchanged. From the 11th fumigation day, NADP-G6PDH and NADP-ME profiles made it possible to
differentiate between the two genotypes, with a higher activity in Carpaccio than in Robusta. At the same time, Carpaccio was able to maintain high levels of NADPH in the cells, while NADPH levels decreased in Robusta O3-treated leaves. All these results support the hypothesis that the capacity for cells to regenerate the reducing power, especially the cytosolic NADPH pool, contributes to improve tolerance to high ozone exposure.”
“Objective: To identify the effect of some herbal products on insulin resistance. Regarding the scientific evidences existing about ginger, this research was therefore carried out to identify the effect of ginger supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in diabetes mellitus.
“To explore the novel application of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), we investigated the interaction of pentachlorophenol (PCP)
pollutant with the pristine and Fe doped (Fe-doped) (8, 0) single-walled BNNTs by performing density functional theory calculations. Compared with the weak physisorption on the pristine BNNT, PCP molecule presents strong chemisorption on the Fe-doped BNNT. The calculated data for the electronic properties indicate that doping Fe atom into the BNNT significantly improves the electronic transport property of BNNT, induces magnetism in the BNNT, and increases its adsorption sensitivity toward PCP molecule. It is suggested that doping BNNTs with Fe is an available strategy for improving RSL3 order the properties of BNNTs, and that Fe-doped BNNT would be a potential resource for adsorbing PCP pollutant in environments.”
“Background: Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) subscales provide an economic alternative for the full scale; however, their ability to detect onset
of improvement in the early course Selleckchem Saracatinib of treatment (El) has not yet been researched. The present study investigated in patients with major depression (MD) whether the subscales are a comparable option to predict treatment remission in the early course of treatment. Methods: Based on data from 210 MD patients of a 6-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing mirtazapine (MIR) and paroxetine (PAR), the discriminative and predictive validity of El for (stable) remission at treatment end was evaluated for seven subscales and the HAMD(17) in the total and in treatment subgroups (MIR vs. PAR). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves (at week 2) and the Clinical Global Impression scales (CGI) (at study endpoint) were
used to validate the 20% EI criterion for the subscales. Results: Only the Evans(6) and Toronto(7) subscale had almost the same predictive value as the HAMD(17) (e.g., sensitivities stable remission Evans(6)/Toronto(7): 96/95% vs. 96% HAMD(17)). The optimal cut-off for El to predict LY2606368 chemical structure remission was just below 20% for most subscales and slightly over 20% for stable remission. Limitations: Study sample representativeness, non-independence of subscales, missing external validation criterion, lack of control group. Conclusions: The Evans and Toronto7 subscales are valuable alternatives in situations, where economic aspects play a larger role. A sum score reduction of bigger than = 20% as definition for EI seems also appropriate for the HAMD subscales, in the total as well as in the antidepressant subgroups. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease, as detected by a reduced ankle-to-arm blood pressure index (AAI), has been shown to predict future cardiac events. However, the utility of measuring the AAI to predict postoperative cardiac complications in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery is unknown.
first 13 consecutive patients operated on using this method were analysed. Twelve patients were operated on at one level and 1 at two levels. Disc herniation was centro-lateral in 10 cases, lateral in 2 and central (broad-based) in 2 patients.\n\nResults: KPT-8602 cell line Regression of radicular pain was noted in all patients. No postoperative complications were observed except for prolongation of wound healing in 2 patients. According to modified MacNab criteria, excellent late outcome was achieved in 8 patients and good in 4 patients. There were no cases of recurrent radicular pain or need for surgical revision for herniation recurrence. One patient was reoperated on because of low back pain (implantation of an interspinous spacer).\n\nConclusions: Microscopically assisted lumbar discectomy using the METRx X-Tube system seems to be safe and effective. This method combines the advantages of modern minimally invasive techniques while avoiding the limitations of endoscopy.”
“Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal, fibroproliferative disease. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can develop secondary to IPF and increase mortality. Alternatively, activated macrophages (AAMs) contribute to the pathogenesis of both IPF and PH. Here we hypothesized that adenosine signaling through the ADORA2B on
AAMs impacts the progression of these disorders and that conditional deletion of ADORA2B on myeloid cells would have a beneficial effect in a model of these diseases. Conditional knockout mice lacking ADORA2B on myeloid cells (Adora2B(f/f)-LysM(Cre))
were exposed to the fibrotic agent Ruboxistaurin hydrochloride bleomycin (BLM; 0.035 U/g body weight, i. p.). At 14, 17, 21, 25, or 33 d after exposure, SpO(2), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and histologic analyses were performed. On day 33, lung function and cardiovascular analyses were determined. Markers for AAM and mediators of fibrosis and PH were assessed. Adora2Bf/f-LysMCre mice presented with attenuated fibrosis, improved lung function, and no evidence of PH compared with control mice exposed to BLM. These findings were accompanied by reduced expression of CD206 and arginase-1, GSK1838705A markers for AAMs. A 10-fold reduction in IL-6 and a 5-fold decrease in hyaluronan, both linked to lung fibrosis and PH, were also observed. These data suggest that activation of the ADORA2B on macrophages plays an active role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and PH.”
“The aim of this study was to explore the significance of plasma kisspeptin levels in diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation through the analysis of the kisspeptin levels of girls diagnosed with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) prior to treatment and after 6-months of treatment and those with simple premature thelarche (PT). A total of 70 girls including 24 girls diagnosed with ICPP, 21 girls with PT and 25 normal girls were enrolled in the study.