These disorders, although rare, should be considered in the appro

These disorders, although rare, should be considered in the approach to a child with dysmorphism, developmental delay, skeletal deformities, and visceromegaly.”
“Schizophrenia remains among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders, and current treatment options are accompanied by unwanted side effects. New treatments that better address

core features of the disease with minimal side effects are needed. As a new therapeutic approach, 1-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-4-((6bR, 10aS)-3-methyl-2,3,6b,9,10,10a-hexahydro-1H,7H-pyrido[3',4':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]quinoxalin-8-yl)-butan-1-one (ITI-007) is currently in human clinical trials for the treatment of schizophrenia. Here, we characterize the preclinical functional activity of ITI-007. ITI-007 is a potent 5-HT2A receptor ligand (K (i) selleck chemicals = 0.5 nM) with strong affinity for dopamine (DA) D-2 receptors (K (i) = 32 nM) and the serotonin transporter (SERT) (K (i) = 62 nM) but negligible binding to receptors

(e.g., H-1 histaminergic, LY293646 5-HT2C, and muscarinic) associated with cognitive and metabolic side effects of antipsychotic drugs. In vivo it is a 5-HT2A antagonist, blocking (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI)-induced headtwitch in mice with an inhibitory dose 50 (ID50) = 0.09 mg/kg, per oral (p.o.), and has dual properties at D-2 receptors, acting as a postsynaptic D-2 receptor antagonist to block D-amphetamine hydrochloride (D-AMPH) hyperlocomotion (ID50 = 0.95 mg/kg, p.o.), yet acting as a partial agonist at presynaptic striatal D2 receptors in assays measuring striatal DA neurotransmission. Further, in microdialysis studies, this compound significantly and preferentially enhances

mesocortical DA release. At doses relevant for antipsychotic activity in rodents, ITI-007 has no demonstrable cataleptogenic activity. ITI-007 indirectly modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission by increasing phosphorylation of GluN2B-type N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and preferentially increases phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3 beta) in mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine systems. The combination of in vitro and in vivo activities of this compound support its development for the treatment this website of schizophrenia and other psychiatric and neurologic disorders.”
“The US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke convened major stakeholders in June 2012 to discuss how to improve the methodological reporting of animal studies in grant applications and publications. The main workshop recommendation is that at a minimum studies should report on sample-size estimation, whether and how animals were randomized, whether investigators were blind to the treatment, and the handling of data. We recognize that achieving a meaningful improvement in the quality of reporting will require a concerted effort by investigators, reviewers, funding agencies and journal editors.

Results: A 24 h exposure to estramustine (<= 100 mu M) signifi

Results: A 24 h exposure to estramustine (<= 100 mu M) significantly increased [Ca2+](i), increased

annexin V binding and increased hemoglobin release. The effect of estramustine on annexin V binding was significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusions: Estramustine stimulates both, eryptosis and hemolysis. The estramustine induced translocation of phosphatidylserine to the cell surface is at least partially due to increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity. Copyright (C) NCT-501 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Objective: This study aims to assess potential complications of autologous lymph-node transplantation (ALNT) to treat limb lymphoedema.\n\nDesign: Prospective, observational study.\n\nMethod: All limb-lymphoedema patients, followed up in Salubrinal in vitro a single lymphology department, who decided to undergo ALNT (January 2004-June 2012) independently of our medical team, were included.\n\nResults: Among the 26 patients (22 females, four males) included, 14 had secondary upper-limb lymphoedenna after breast-cancer treatment and seven had secondary and five primary lower-limb lymphoedema. Median (interquartile range, IQR) ages at primary lower-limb lymphoedema and secondary lymphoedema onset were 18.5 (13-30) and 47.4 (35-58) years, respectively.

Median body mass index (BMI) was 25.9 (22.9-29.3) kg m(-2). For all patients, median pre-surgery lymphoedema duration was 37 (24-90) months. Thirty-four ALNs were transplanted into the 26 patients, combined with liposuction in four lower-limb-lymphoedema patients. Ten

(38%) patients developed 15 complications: six, chronic lymphoedema (four upper limb, two lower limb), defined as >= 2-cm difference versus the contralateral side, in the limb on the donor lymph-node-site territory, persisting for a median of 40 months post-ALNT; four, post-surgical lymphocoeles; one testicular hydrocoele requiring surgery; and four with persistent donor-site pain. Median see more (IQR) pre- and post-surgical lymphoedema volumes, calculated using the formula for a truncated cone, were, respectively, 1023 (633-1375) ml (median: 3 (1-6) months) and 1058 (666-1506) ml (median: 40 (14-72) months; P = 0.73).\n\nConclusion: ALNT may engender severe, chronic complications, particularly persistent iatrogenic lymphoedema. Further investigations are required to evaluate and clearly determine its indications. (C) 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although islet transplantation has demonstrated its potential use in treating type 1 diabetes, this remains limited by the need for daily immunosuppression. Islet encapsulation was then proposed with a view to avoiding any immunosuppressive regimen and related side effects.

We used the method of full costing to calculate the cost of SWL,

We used the method of full costing to calculate the cost of SWL, and the break-even point was the lowest number of treatment sessions of SWL to make balance of payments every month. Quality parameters including stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate were evaluated. When outsourcing cooperation was used, there were significantly more treatment sessions of SWL every month than when utilizing self-support (36.3 +/-

A 5.1 vs. 48.1 +/- A 8.4, P = 0.03). The cost of SWL for every treatment session was significantly higher using self-support than with outsourcing buy Androgen Receptor Antagonist cooperation (25027.5 +/- A 1789.8 NT$ vs. 21367.4 +/- A 201.0 NT$). The break-even point was 28.3 (treatment sessions) for self-support, selleck and 28.4 for outsourcing cooperation, when the hospital got 40% of the payment, which would decrease if the percentage increased. No significant differences were noticed for stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate of SWL between the two running models. Besides, outsourcing cooperation had lower cost (every treatment session), but a greater number of treatment sessions of SWL every month than self-support.”
“The composition of cyanobacteria, mosses, and lichens of biological Soil Crusts were correlated with soil characteristics and sun exposure along an environmental transect. The study was conducted in Zapotitlan

drylands, a locality within the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Valley, central Mexico, where a great variety of environments for crust development exist due to landscape fragmentation. Data were analyzed Acalabrutinib in vitro with redundancy and Sorensen analysis.

Soil crusts consisted of different combinations of cyanobacteria (7 species), mosses (19 species), and lichens (8 species). The relative frequencies of these groups were positively correlated with soil apparent density and lichens were also positively correlated with soil pH. However, there were no significant correlations with sun exposure. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Sir Arnold Theiler’s research in 1908/09 led to the discovery of the first rickettsial pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, and set the stage for his development and implementation of an effective live vaccine based on a less virulent strain, A. marginale ss centrale His 1910 report, describing A marginale, is among the classic monographs in infectious disease research, presenting not only observations in exacting detail but also highlighting the deductive reasoning leading to association of a new pathogen with a specific disease With a centennial perspective and both conceptual frameworks and molecular tools unimaginable in Theiler’s time, the significance of several observations in the original report-cyclic bacteremia, strain superinfection, and taxonomic position-is now clear and highlight the broad applicability of key principles of pathogen biology.

Results 75/408 (18 4%) segments in 18/24 patients (75 0%) sho

\n\nResults 75/408 (18.4%) segments in 18/24 patients (75.0%) showed DE in MRI, of which 28 segments in 10/24 (41.7%) patients

were non-viable (scar tissue transmurality > 50%). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CT for diagnosis of non-viability were 60.7%, 96.8% and 94.4% per segment, and 90.0%, 92.9% and 91.7% per patient. CNR was significantly higher in MR (7.4 +/- 3.0 vs. 4.6 +/- 1.5; p = 0.018), and image noise significantly lower (11.6 +/- LOXO-101 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor 5.7 vs.15.0 +/- 4.5; p = 0.019). Radiation dose of DECT was 0.89 +/- 0.07 mSv.\n\nConclusions CTDE imaging in the high-pitch mode enables myocardial viability assessment at a low radiation dose and good accuracy compared with MR, although associated with a lower CNR and higher noise.”
“Today, tetanus exacts its toll only in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. Agrarian rural life with limited vaccine typifies tetanus risk in Ethiopia where current tetanus control trends on expanding infant immunization and eliminating highly prevalent maternal and

neonatal tetanus (MNT). Protection by infant tetanus immunization primers disappears within an average of 3 years, if not followed by boosters. Second-year of life, school-based, and universal 10-yearly tetanus immunizations need to be supplemented. Facility-based reviews in Ethiopia reveal a continued burden of PX-478 clinical trial tetanus at tertiary-level hospitals where ICU care is suboptimal. Quality of medical care for tetanus is low – reflected by high case-fatality-rates. Opportunities at primary-health-care-units PI3K inhibitor (antenatal-care, family

planning, abortion, wound-care, tetanus-survivors) need to be fully-utilized to expand tetanus immunization. Prompt wound-care with post-exposure prophylaxis and proper footwear must be promoted. Standard ICU care needs to exist. Realization of cold-chain-flexible, needle-less and mono-dose vaccine programs allow avoiding boosters, vaccine-refrigeration, and improve compliance.”
“Seizure onset detection with minimum latency has a key role in improving the therapy studies of epilepsy. In this article, an epileptic seizure onset detection algorithm based on general tensor discriminant analysis is proposed to detect the seizure through EEG signals with smallest delay before the development of clinical symptoms. In this algorithm, seizure and nonseizure EEG signal epochs are exhibited by spectral, spatial, and temporal domains (third-order tensors) in wavelet decomposition. Then, to reduce feature space, projection matrices are extracted from tensor-represented EEG signal by general tensor discriminant analysis. In this strategy, the discriminative information in the training tensors is preserved that it is a benefit in comparison with common feature space reduction algorithms such as principal component analysis and multilinear subspace analysis.

The TPO tests were performed with the soot-catalyst mixture under

The TPO tests were performed with the soot-catalyst mixture under loose contact conditions to evaluate the catalytic activity of the oxide catalysts for soot oxidation. The MnOx-CeO2 mixed oxide catalyst presents the lowest soot oxidation temperature among the catalysts investigated in the presence of NO and O-2. The synergetic effect between manganese oxide and ceria restrains the growth of oxide crystallites, increases the specific surface area and improves the low-temperature redox property.

Especially, the activity of MnOx-CeO2 mixed oxides for NO oxidation and its capacity for NO2 storage in the form of surface nitrates are greatly enhanced. Not only the NO2 released FK228 inhibitor from decomposition of surface nitrates but also that formed by catalytic oxidation of gaseous or adsorbed NO on the catalyst is confirmed important for soot oxidation. It is found by the in situ DRIFTS tests with the soot-catalyst mixture that the generation of surface oxygen complexes (SOCs), such as carboxylic anhydrides, lactones, quinine, ceto-enol groups, ethers and phenols, occurs OSI-744 purchase at about 100 degrees C lower temperature with exposure to NO than in the absence of NO, which is an important step for soot oxidation. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of humans and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Prolonged infection of the respiratory tract

can lead to adaptation of the pathogen to the CF lung environment. To examine the general patterns of adaptation associated with chronic infection, we obtained genome sequences from a collection of P. aeruginosa NU7441 in vivo isolated from airways of patients with CF. Our analyses support a nonclonal epidemic population structure, with a background of unique, recombining genotypes, and the rare occurrence of successful epidemic clones. We present unique genome sequence evidence

for the intercontinental spread of an epidemic strain shared between CF clinics in the United Kingdom and North America. Analyses of core and accessory genomes identified candidate genes and important functional pathways associated with adaptive evolution. Many genes of interest were involved in biological functions with obvious roles in this pathosystem, such as biofilm formation, antibiotic metabolism, pathogenesis, transport, reduction/oxidation, and secretion. Key factors driving the adaptive evolution of this pathogen within the host appear to be the presence of oxidative stressors and antibiotics. Regions of the accessory genome unique to the epidemic strain were enriched for genes in transporter families that efflux heavy metals and antibiotics. The epidemic strain was significantly more resistant than nonepidemic strains to three different antibiotics. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that selection imposed by the CF lung environment has a major influence on genomic evolution and the genetic characteristics of P.

The mean relative error in the actual and predicted values from t

The mean relative error in the actual and predicted values from the FES model with respect to tractive effort, total motion resistance and total power consumption were found to be 5.58 %, 6.78 % and 10.63 %, respectively. For all parameters, the relative error in the predicted values was found to be less than the acceptable limit (10%), except for the total power consumption. Furthermore, the goodness of fit of BAY 57-1293 the predicted values was found to be close to 1.0 as expected and, hence, indicates the good performance of the developed system.”
“Objective: We conducted this study to compare tumor measurement by computed tomography (CT) and tumor response assessment between

Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.0 and RECIST 1.1 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients with metastatic CRC who received first-line chemotherapy between January 2004 and December 2012 and compared CT tumor measurement using two RECIST versions. Results: A total of 58 patients who had target lesions according to RECIST 1.0 were included in the study. The

number of target lesions recorded by RECIST 1.1 was significantly lower than that by RECIST 1.0, with a decrease experienced in 48 patients (82.7%). Six patients had no target lesions because of the new criteria of RECIST 1.1 for lymph node size. Out of 95 lymph

nodes from 58 patients, only 40% were defined as target lesions according to RECIST 1.1. The overall response rate of first-line chemotherapy according to RECIST CA3 manufacturer 1.0 and 1.1 was 41.5 and 40.4%, respectively. The best tumor responses showed almost perfect agreement between RECIST 1.1 and RECIST 1.0 (kappa = 0.913). Three patients showed disagreement of the best responses between the two RECIST versions. Conclusion: RECIST 1.1 showed a highly concordant response assessment with RECIST 1.0 in metastatic CRC and its clinical impact on therapeutic decisions was minimal. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Epigenetic asymmetry has been shown to be associated with the first lineage allocation event in preimplantation selleck products development, that is, the formation of the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages in the blastocyst. Since parthenogenesis causes aberrant segregation between the TE and ICM lineages, we examined several development-associated histone modifications in parthenotes, including those involved in (i) transcriptional activation [acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9Ac) and lysine 14 (H3K14Ac), trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4Me3), and dimethylated histone H3 arginine 26 (H3R26Me2)] and (ii) transcriptional repression [trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9Me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27Me3), and mono-ubiquitinated histone H2A lysine 119 (H2AK119u1)].

The DR image ratio R620/R575 computed for each pixel (8-mu m reso

The DR image ratio R620/R575 computed for each pixel (8-mu m resolution) from the monochrome images is pseudo-color-mapped to identify gingival inflammation sites. The DR image ratio values at each site are compared with clinical diagnosis to estimate the specificity and sensitivity of the DR imaging technique in inflammation mapping. The high diagnostic accuracy is utilized to detect underlying inflammation in six patients with a previous history of periodontitis. (C) 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) [DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.18.2.026019]“

information is available on potential over-reporting of protected sex acts among US women. Of 19,003 sex acts reported Selleck Barasertib by 705 participants over a 3-month period, 26.9% and 9.2% were fully and partially protected by a condom, respectively. The potential for misclassifying partially condom-protected sex buy 3-Methyladenine acts as fully condom-protected sex acts is discussed.”
“Background: Previously, we demonstrated that input SV40 particles undergo a partial disassembly in the endoplasmic reticulum, which exposes internal capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 to immunostaining. Then, in the cytoplasm, disassembly progresses further to also make

the genomic DNA accessible to immune detection, as well as to detection by an ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU)-based chemical reaction. The cytoplasmic partially disassembled SV40 particles retain some of the SV40 capsid proteins, VP1, Napabucasin clinical trial VP2, and VP3, in addition to the viral genome.\n\nFindings: In the current study, we asked where in the cell the SV40 genome might disassociate from capsid components. We observed partially disassembled input SV40 particles around the nucleus and, beginning at 12 hours post-infection, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled parental SV40 DNA in the nucleus, as detected using anti-BrdU antibodies. However, among the more than 1500 cells examined, we never detected input VP2/VP3

in the nucleus. Upon translocation of the BrdU-labeled SV40 genomes into nuclei, they were transcribed and, thus, are representative of productive infection.\n\nConclusions: Our findings imply that the SV40 genome disassociates from the capsid proteins before or at the point of entry into the nucleus, and then enters the nucleus devoid of VP2/3.”
“Four pairs of novel N(H)-bridged azacalixarenes derived from triptycene were synthesized by both one-pot and two-step fragment-coupling approaches. Due to the unique 3D rigid structure of triptycene, the macrocycles all adopted fixed conformations in both solution and solid state. X-ray crystallographic analyses also revealed that the cis isomers with boat conformations showed the capability of encapsulating methanol and acetone molecules inside.

The SCV Heba3231 and 3231 strains induced DTH, the hemB mutant in

The SCV Heba3231 and 3231 strains induced DTH, the hemB mutant induced intermediate hypersensitivity, and Newbould 305 failed to induce DTH. These results indicate marked differences in immune responses induced by parent and SCV forms of the same strain of S. aureus and by the two wildtype strains. This is the first study to evaluate both AMIR and CMIR in the context of persistent bovine mastitis to different and genetically characterized strains of S. aureus including two SCVs. The findings expand our understanding of immune responses to persistent S. aureus mastitis. (C) 2010 Elsevier

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neural precursor cells of the central nervous system undergo successive temporal waves of terminal division, each of which is soon followed by the onset of cell differentiation. The organ of Corti in the mammalian cochlea develops differently, such that precursors at the apex are the first to exit from the cell cycle but the last to begin differentiating as mechanosensory hair cells. Using a tissue-specific knockout approach in mice, we show that this unique temporal pattern of sensory cell development requires that the adjacent auditory (spiral) ganglion serve

as a source of the signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh). In the absence of this signaling, the cochlear duct is shortened, sensory hair cell precursors exit from the cell cycle prematurely, and hair cell differentiation closely follows cell cycle exit in a similar apical-to-basal direction. The dynamic relationship between the restriction of Shh expression in the developing spiral ganglion and its proximity LEE011 datasheet to regions of the growing cochlear duct dictates the timing of terminal mitosis of hair cell precursors and their subsequent differentiation.”
“A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete, strain MN08-A0264(T), was isolated from soil sampled in Mongolia. The isolate formed pale to moderate yellowish brown colonies and branched substrate mycelium. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain MN08-A0264(T) belonged to the genus Cryptosporangium and exhibited 97.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Cryptosporangium

aurantiacum IMSNU 22120(T), 977% with C. minutisporangium IFO 15962(T), 97.2 % with C. arvum IFO 15965(T) and 96.8 % with C. japonicum IFO 15966(T). The allocation of the isolate to the genus Cryptosporangium was supported by chemotaxonomic data: menaquinone MK-9(H-6) with minor amounts of MK-9(H-8) and MK-9(H-4), major amounts of iso-C-16:0, C(18:1)9c and C-17:0 10-methyl, a polar lipid profile comprising phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and glycolipids, and whole-cell sugars glucose, galactose, acofriose (3-O methylrhamnose), mannose, ribose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose (trace). DNA-DNA relatedness (5-20 %) differentiated the isolate from its closest neighbours.

We also discuss using steroid therapy for patients with H1N1-rela

We also discuss using steroid therapy for patients with H1N1-related diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.”
“Background: The North American Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (NA-ADNI) was the first program to develop standardized procedures for

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) imaging biomarker collection. Objective: We describe the validation of acquisition and processing of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in different Italian academic AD clinics following NA-ADNI procedures. Methods: 373 patients with subjective memory impairment (n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (n = 92), Alzheimer’s dementia (n = 253), and frontotemporal dementia (n = 16) were enrolled in 9 Italian centers. 22 cognitively healthy elderly controls were also included. MRI site qualification and MP-RAGE quality

assessment was applied following the NA-ADNI procedures. Indices of validity were: (i) NA-ADNI phantom’s JQ-EZ-05 manufacturer signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio, (ii) proportion of images passing quality control, (iii) comparability of automated intracranial volume (ICV) estimates across scanners, and (iv) known-group validity of manual hippocampal volumetry. Results: Results on Phantom and Volunteers this website scans showed that I-ADNI acquisition parameters were comparable with those one of the ranked-A ADNI scans. Eighty-seven percent of I-ADNI MPRAGE images were ranked of high quality in comparison of 69% of NA-ADNI. ICV showed homogeneous variances across scanners except for Siemens scanners at 3.0 Tesla (p = 0.039). A significant difference in hippocampal volume was found between AD and controls on 1.5 Tesla scans (p smaller than 0.001), confirming known group validity test. Conclusion: This study has provided standardization of MRI acquisition and imaging marker collection across different Italian clinical units and equipment. This is a mandatory step to the implementation of imaging biomarkers in clinical routine for early and differential diagnosis.”
“Background: Bafilomycin A1 concentration Fecal calprotectin can be used as a noninvasive tool to assess inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

(IBD). However, the diagnostic accuracy of calprotectin is modest, and therefore additional markers are needed. We compared the efficacy of fecal hemoglobin and calprotectin as markers for endoscopic inflammation in patients with IBD. Methods: Consecutive patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis scheduled for surveillance colonoscopy collected a stool sample before bowel preparation. Experienced endoscopists assessed the presence of inflammation in each colonic segment. Fecal calprotectin and hemoglobin were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Receiver operator characteristic statistics were used to determine cutoff values for calprotectin and hemoglobin. Results: A total of 176 surveillance colonoscopies were performed in 164 patients, of which 83 patients had Crohn’s disease, 74 had ulcerative colitis, and 7 IBD-unclassified.

Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated ba

Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated based on the blend of the as-synthesized polymers and the fullerene derivative ABT 263 [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) in a 1:2 weight ratio. The maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.06% was obtained for PL5-based PSC under the illumination of AM 1.5, 100 mW/cm(2). (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 49: 3604-3614, 2011″
“In the first part of this paper the authors describe an innovative sandwich

panel that comprises Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) connectors and two thin layers of Steel Fibre Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete (SFRSCC). This second part of the paper reports the investigation performed by the authors based on the numerical simulation of these sandwich panels. The simulations use the Finite Element Method (FEM) software implemented by the second author (FEMIX). Through linear static analyses and consideration of Ultimate Limit State

loading scenarios, parametric studies were performed in order to optimise the arrangement of the GFRP connectors and the thickness of the SFRSCC layers. Moreover, models considering a specific nonlinear behaviour of SFRSCC were also constructed in order to simulate the progressive damage of the panel induced by cracking. In the scope of the nonlinear analyses, emphasis is Volasertib clinical trial given to parameter estimation of fracture modelling parameters for the fibre reinforced concrete based on both inverse analysis and the fib Model Code. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. RSL3 mw All rights reserved.”
“Bio-oil is a promising alternative source of energy produced from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Increasing the viscosity of bio-oil during storage is a major problem that can be controlled by the addition of methanol or other alcohols. This paper reports the results of our investigation of the reactions of short chain

alcohols with aldehydes and acids in bio-oil. The reaction of methanol with hydroxyacetaldehyde (HA) to form the acetal was catalyzed by the addition of 7 x 10(-4) M strong acids such as sulfuric, hydrochloric, p-toluene sulfonic acid, and methanesulfonic acid. HA formed 2,2-dimethoxyethanol (DME), and at 60 degrees C the equilibrium was reached in less than one hour. Smaller amounts of DME were formed in the absence of strong acid. HA, acetaldehyde, and propanal formed their corresponding acetals when reacted with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol. Esters of acetic acid and hydroxyacetic acid were observed from reactions with these same four alcohols. Other acetals and esters were observed by GC/MS analysis of the reaction products. The results from accelerated aging experiments at 90 degrees C suggest that the presence of methanol slows polymerization by formation of acetals and esters from low molecular weight aldehydes and organic acids.