The strut geometry is of particular interest, as it is reported to have
substantial influence on the occurring thermo-hydraulic and mechanical phenomena. Axial strut size variation, AG 14699 as well as the porosity dependence of shape is quantified and included in a geometrical model. The foam is generated by placing the struts on an elongated tetrakaidecahedron. The required input parameters for the model are two cell dimensions, corresponding to the mean transverse and conjugate diameters of the ellipse encompassing a cell, and the strut cross-sectional surface area at its midpoint between two nodes. The foam geometry is generated iteratively, as porosity is used as validation. A high resolution micro-computed tomography scan is performed to measure the three parameters, the resulting porosity and surface-to-volume ratio. This allows to validate the model. The predictions are found to be within measurement accuracy. A numerical implementation of
the model in the preprocessor of a commercial CFD package is demonstrated. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3587159]“
“Background: Parent-offspring associations in adiposity are well known, but the extent to which they are explained by modifiable environmental and lifestyle factors remains to be elucidated.
Objectives: The objectives were to assess whether 1) parent-offspring associations in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) persist from childhood to midadulthood, 2) parental BMI is associated with the offspring’s adult lifestyle, and 3) parent-offspring BMI associations in midadulthood are explained Rabusertib chemical structure by lifestyle factors.
Design: Participants in the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study and their parents (n = 9346) were examined. Parental BMI
was assessed in 1969; ARN-509 offspring (ie, cohort members) BMI was ascertained prospectively at 11 and 44-45 y. Lifestyle factors of the offspring, including diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking, were assessed prospectively in adulthood.
Results: Maternal and paternal BMI were positively associated with offspring BMI in both childhood and midadulthood, and the strength of the association did not diminish with offspring age. Maternal BMI was associated with several offspring lifestyle factors across adulthood; fewer associations were observed for paternal BMI. Parent-offspring BMI associations in adulthood were largely maintained after adjustment for multiple lifestyle and socioeconomic factors at different life stages: if parental BMI was I unit higher, offspring BMI at 44-45 y was higher by between 0.21 and 0.29 units in adjusted models.
Conclusions: Strong parent-offspring BMI associations are maintained into midlife. These associations are largely unaffected by adjustment for a wide range of lifestyle factors. Offspring of obese parents are an important target for interventions aimed at reducing population levels of overweight and obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:946-53.