2 and 3.5 yr, respectively). We compared interspecies differences in steady-state and high glucose (HG; 30 mmol/l)-induced production of O-2(center dot-) and H2O2, endothelial function, mitochondrial ROS generation, and inflammatory gene expression in cultured aortic segments. In P. leucopus aortas, steady- state endothelial O-2(center dot-) and H2O2 production and ROS generation by mitochondria were less than in M. musculus vessels. Furthermore, vessels of P. leucopus were more resistant to the prooxidant effects of HG. Primary fibroblasts from P. leucopus also exhibited less steady- state and HG-induced ROS production Selleck BEZ235 than M. musculus cells. In M. musculus arteries,
HG elicited significant up-regulation of inflammatory markers (TNF-alpha, IL-6, ICAM-1, VCAM, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). In contrast, the proinflammatory effects of HG were blunted in P. leucopus vessels. Thus, increased life span potential in P. leucopus is associated with decreased cellular ROS generation and increased resistance to prooxidant and proinflammatory effects of metabolic stress, which accord with predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging.”
“Targeting delivery of anticancer agents is a promising field in anticancer therapy. Inherent tumor-tropic and migratory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) make them
potential vehicles for targeting drug delivery systems for tumors. Although, MSCs have been successfully studied and discussed as a vehicle for cancer gene therapy, they have selleck chemicals llc not yet been studied adequately as a potential vehicle for traditional chemical anticancer drugs. In this study, we have engineered MSCs as a potential targeting delivery vehicle for paclitaxel (TAX)- loaded nanoparticles (NPs). The size, surface charge, starving time of MSCs, incubating time and concentration of NPs could influence the efficiency of NPs uptake. In vitro release of TAX from GSK1120212 MAPK inhibitor CTS (chitosan)-TAX-NP-MSCs and the expression of P-glycoprotein demonstrated that release of TAX from MSCs might involve both passive diffusion and active transport. In vitro migration
assays indicated that MSCs at passage number 3 have the highest migrating ability. Although, the migration ability of CTS-TAX-NP-MSCs could be inhibited by uptake of CTS-TAX-NPs, this ability could recover 6 days after the internalization. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85 % of haemorrhagic stroke and is mainly caused due to weakening of arterial wall. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a cuproenzyme involved in cross linking structural proteins collagen and elastin, thus providing structural stability to artery. Using a case-control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in LOX gene flanking the two LD block, can increase risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease.
Our results suggest that other ecological factors such as optimal hunting conditions have shaped the diel activity patterns of subdominant,
large predators. We suggest that they are “starvation driven” and must exploit every opportunity to obtain a meal. The benefits of activity BI 2536 cost on moonlit nights therefore offset the risks of encountering night-active predators and competitors.”
“Complications associated with castration occur commonly and, although the majority are mild and resolve easily, potentially life-threatening complications can occur. The preoperative identification of risk factors for these complications can help the veterinarian to take the appropriate measures to reduce these risks. However, even with proper surgical technique, complications can occur. Therefore prompt recognition and initiation of appropriate therapy are essential to prevent further morbidity, death or lawsuits.”
“Disease progression in cancer can vary substantially between patients. Yet, patients often
receive the same treatment. Recently, there has been much work on predicting disease progression and patient outcome variables from gene expression in order to personalize treatment options. Despite first diagnostic kits in the market, there are open problems such as the choice of random gene signatures or noisy expression data. One approach to deal with these two problems employs protein-protein interaction networks and ranks genes using the random surfer model of Google’s PageRank algorithm. In this work, we created a benchmark dataset collection comprising 25 cancer outcome prediction datasets from literature and systematically evaluated PR-171 cell line the use of networks and a PageRank derivative, NetRank, for signature identification.
We show that the NetRank performs significantly better than classical methods such YM155 order as fold change or t-test. Despite an order of magnitude difference in network size, a regulatory and protein-protein interaction network perform equally well. Experimental evaluation on cancer outcome prediction in all of the 25 underlying datasets suggests that the network-based methodology identifies highly overlapping signatures over all cancer types, in contrast to classical methods that fail to identify highly common gene sets across the same cancer types. Integration of network information into gene expression analysis allows the identification of more reliable and accurate biomarkers and provides a deeper understanding of processes occurring in cancer development and progression.”
“Glycogen storage disease type III is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by a deficiency in the glycogen debranching enzyme, encoded by AGL. Essential features of this disease are hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and growth retardation. Progressive skeletal myopathy, neuropathy, and/or cardiomyopathy become prominent in adults. Currently, there is no available cure.
The temperature-induced conformational changes of sCT in H(2)O was occurred to transform the alpha-helix/random coil structures to beta-sheet structure and also resulted in the formation of intramolecular and intermolecular beta-sheet structures. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 93: 200-207, 2010.”
“Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common Gram-negative respiratory pathogen. We demonstrated previously that myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88) is of utmost importance in host
defense against MK-4827 DNA Damage inhibitor NTHi. All TLRs except for TLR3 depend on MyD88 for signaling. TLR9, the TLR for detecting pathogen DNA depends on MyD88 signaling. Here, we investigate the role of TLR9 during NTHi pneumonia.\n\nAlveolar macrophages (AM) from normal wild-type (WT) and TLR9 knock-out (KO) mice were harvested and stimulated with growth-arrested NTHi or CPG DNA. WT and TLR9 KO mice were infected intranasally with NTHi: cytokine and chemokine responses were measured 16 h later.\n\nDespite Vorinostat manufacturer significant reduced TNF production
by TLR9 KO AM in response to CPG DNA, no difference was detected in TNF production after NTHi stimulation by isolated alveolar macrophages from WT and TLR9 KO mice. Moreover, we found similar pulmonary bacterial loads, similar cytokine and chemokine levels in WT and TLR9 KO mice, and no differences in histopathology.\n\nIn conclusion, we were not able to demonstrate a role for TLR9 in the recognition Z-DEVD-FMK order of and host defense against NTHi. (C) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Of forty-seven extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates, collected from children at the Children’s Hospital in 2006 (Tunis, Tunisia), we analyzed 32 isolates that were genotypically different by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus -polymerase chain reaction. For all isolates, the double-disk diffusion test revealed synergy between clavulanate and cefotaxime and/or ceftazidime, suggesting the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Polymerase chain reaction experiments, performed on plasmid DNA, and sequencing revealed the presence of bla(TEM-1B) (26 isolates,
81%), bla(TEM-34(IRT-6)) (3 isolates, 9%), bla(SHV-12) (2 isolates, 6%), and bla(CTX-M-15) (31 isolates, 97%). Further, the insertion sequence ISEcp1 was found upstream from the bla(CTX-M-15) gene in 11 isolates. The bla genes were found alone or in various combinations in a single isolate. bla(TEM-1B) and bla(CTX-M-15) genes were detected in 26 out of the 32 isolates. Three isolates harbored both bla(TEM-34(IRT-6)) and bla(CTX-M-15). bla(SHV-12) was identified either alone or with bla(CTX-M-15) in a single isolate. Our investigation showed the dominance of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, with CTX-M-15 particularly common, and to our best knowledge, this is the first report of the coexistence of CTX-M-15 and IRT-6 in E. coli isolates from children in Tunisia.
50 mg mL(-1), and the IC50 value of ascorbic acid was 0.30 mg mL(-1), but within the selected dosage, the highest scavenging capacity of Fer-1 chemical structure ansu apricot oil was higher than the control. The results obtained in this study clearly suggest that ansu apricot oil is a natural source of antioxidants and could serve as a functional food ingredient with potential application in food products and thus provide related health benefits.”
“To analyze the effect of infiltration of local anesthetics on postoperative pain relief.\n\nProspective randomized double-blind trial.\n\nUniversity Teaching
Hospital in Barbados, West Indies.\n\nPatients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.\n\nPatients were randomly allocated into one of four groups according to the wound infiltration: 1) preoperative and postoperative 0.9% saline; 2) preoperative saline and postoperative local anesthetic mixture (10 mL 2% lidocaine added to 10 mL 0.5% bupivacaine); 3) preoperative local anesthetic mixture and postoperative saline; and 4) preoperative and postoperative local anesthetic mixture. Both patients and
investigators were blinded to the group allocation. All patients Pevonedistat received pre-incision tenoxicam and morphine, standardized anesthesia, and postoperative morphine by patient-controlled analgesia.\n\nThe amount of morphine used and the intensity of pain as measured by visual analog pain scale were recorded check details at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively.\n\nEighty patients were studied with 20 in each group. Total dose of morphine used by patients who received preoperative and postoperative local anesthetic infiltration was lesser compared to other
groups, although there was no statistically significant difference. Similarly, there was no difference in the intensity of pain between any groups.\n\nLocal anesthetic infiltration before and/or after abdominal hysterectomy does not reduce the intensity of postoperative pain and analgesic requirements.”
“INTRODUCTION: Regular physical exercise has numerous benefits. However, there is a subset of the exercising population who may develop a compulsion to exercise excessively and who may, as a consequence, display physiological and psychological changes that have a direct influence on their quality of life.\n\nOBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if there are differences between male and female athletes’ scores on measures of negative addiction symptoms, quality of life, mood and sleep. Methods: 144 female and 156 male athletes participated in this study by answering the following questionnaires: Negative Addiction Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, SF-36 Quality of Life, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
In the present system, the reduced cofactor (NADH) was regenerated by GLD from the oxidized cofactor (NAD(+)) using glycerol as a sacrificial cosubstrate. The reducing equivalents were subsequently transferred to NADP(+) by STH as a cycling catalyst. The resultant regenerated NADPH was used for the substrate oxidation catalyzed by cytochrome P450BM3. The initial rate of the P450BM3-catalyzed reaction linked by the two-step cofactor regeneration showed a slight
increase (approximately twice) when increasing BTSA1 the GLD units 10-fold under initial reaction conditions. In contrast, a 10-fold increase in STH units resulted in about a 9-fold increase in the initial reaction rate, implying that transhydrogenation catalyzed by STH was the rate-determining step. In the system lacking the two-step cofactor regeneration, 34% conversion of 50 mu M of a model substrate (p-nitrophenoxydecanoic acid) Apoptosis Compound Library was attained using 50 mu M NADPH. In contrast, with the two-step cofactor regeneration, the same amount of substrate was completely converted using 5 mu M of oxidized cofactors (NAD(+) and NADP(+)) within 1 h. Furthermore, a 10-fold dilution of the oxidized cofactors still led to approximately 20% conversion in
1 h. These results indicate the potential of the combination of GLD and STH for use in redox cofactor recycling with catalytic quantities of NAD(+) and NADP(+). (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 25: 1372-1378, 2009″
“Anomalous coronary arteries with an inter-arterial course are associated with sudden cardiac death. We reported a study comparing the accuracy of fluoroscopic coronary angiography (FCA) with that of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography in determining the proximal course www.selleckchem.com/products/sch-900776.html of anomalous coronary arteries.\n\nTwelve patients with thirteen anomalous coronary arteries had both FCA and MSCT coronary angiography were included in this study. Twelve cardiologists individually reviewed FCAs of anomalous coronary arteries and determined the
proximal course of anomalous coronary arteries as retro-aortic, inter-arterial or ante-pulmonary. Their diagnoses were compared with MSCT coronary angiography which was regarded as the reference standard in this study. On MSCT coronary angiography, there were six anomalous left circumflex arteries with a retro-aortic course, five anomalous right coronary arteries and one anomalous left anterior descending artery with inter-arterial courses, and a single anomalous left main artery with an ante-pulmonary course. The percentage of correct diagnosis made by 12 cardiologists based on FCA findings was 93/156 or 60%. None of the cardiologists was correct in determining the proximal course of all anomalous coronary arteries. The median number of anomalous coronary arteries with their proximal courses correctly identified by the cardiologists was 7.5 (range 3-12).
Here, we document patient outcomes in a pilot peritoneal dialysis program established in 2009 at a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania.”
“Background: Anterolateral Minithoracotomy (ALMT) for the radical correction of Congenital Heart Defects is an alternative to Median Sternotomy (MS) due to reduce operative trauma accelerating recovery and yield a better cosmetic outcome after surgery. Our purpose is to conduct whether ALMT would bring more
short-term benefits to patients than conventional Median Sternotomy by using a meta-analysis of case-control study in the published English Journal.\n\nMethods: selleck 6 case control studies published in English from 1997 to 2011 were identified and synthesized to compare the short-term postoperative outcomes between ALMT and MS. These outcomes were cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic cross-clamp time, intubation time, intensive care unit stay time, and postoperative hospital stay time.\n\nResults: ALMT had significantly longer cardiopulmonary bypass times (8.00 min more, Selleck S63845 95% CI 0.36 to 15.64 min, p = 0.04). Some evidence proved that aortic cross-clamp time of ALMT was longer, yet not significantly (2.38 min more, 95% CI -0.15 to 4.91 min, p = 0.06). In addition, ALMT had significantly shorter intubation time (1.66 hrs less, 95% CI -3.05 to -0.27 hrs, p = 0.02). Postoperative hospital stay time was significantly shorter with ALMT (1.52 days less, 95% CI -2.71 to
-0.33 days, p = 0.01). Some evidence suggested a reduction in ICU stay time in the ALMT group. However, this did not prove to be statistically significant (0.88 days less,
95% CI -0.81 to 0.04 days, p = 0.08).\n\nConclusion: ALMT can bring more benefits to patients with Congenital Heart Defects by reducing intubation time and postoperative hospital stay time, though ALMT has longer CPB time and aortic cross-clamp time.”
“The majority of medical providers, nurses, and patients agree that appearance is important for patient care. However, at our institution, concerns regarding providers’ white coats as fomites are expressed primarily by providers and Tariquidar nurses, not by patients. We provide a framework for approaching this important issue through a structured quality-improvement process. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc.”
“AimTo examine the temporospatial expression of dentine matrix protein 1 (DMP1; a noncollagenous protein involved in mineralized tissue formation), osteopontin (another noncollagenous protein detected during reparative dentinogenesis) and nestin (a marker of differentiating/differentiated odontoblasts), following direct pulp capping with calcium hydroxide in rat molars. MethodologyThe maxillary first molars of 8-week-old Wistar rats had their pulps exposed and capped with calcium hydroxide. The pulp-capped teeth were collected from 6h to 14days postoperatively and processed for immunohistochemistry for DMP1, osteopontin and nestin.
7%) kept their failed graft (Group
B). Group A showed significantly more positive PRA levels when compared with the other group (38% vs 10%; P smaller than .001), as measured before Quisinostat the most recent transplantation, and a higher rate of acute rejection (19% vs 5.6%; P = .016). There were 28 (36%) renal allograft losses for Group A and 18 (36%) for those who had not had transplantectomy (P = not significant [NS]). One-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival rates were 96.6%, 90.7%, and 83.4%, respectively, in Group A and 95%, 82%, and 68.4%, respectively, in Group B, with no statistical differences (P = .19). Five-year actuarial patient survival rates in the 2 groups was 89.3% and 82.8%, respectively (P = .55). Multivariate analysis showed that PRA level and delayed graft function (DGF) had a statistically significant influence on graft survival (P = .028; odds ratio [OR] = 1.029; and P = .024; OR = 8.6), irrespective of whether the patient had graft nephrectomy or not. The allosensitization indicated by PRA increases after transplantectomy and leads to a higher incidence of acute rejection after retransplantation. Nephrectomy of failed allograft does not seem to significantly influence the survival of a subsequent graft. The decision to remove or retain a failed graft
in the context of retransplantation should thus be based on known clinical indications for the procedure.”
“A series of Selleckchem JQEZ5 alpha,beta-unsaturated-gamma-lactone-free nitrogen-containing
heterocyclic analogues of solamin, a natural mono-THF acetogenin, have been synthesized and their cytotoxicity was investigated against 39 tumor cell lines. One of them, 1-methylpyrazol-5-yl derivative, showed selective increase of cytotoxicity against NCI-H23 with 80 times higher potency than solamin. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: To reach consensus with recommendations made by an OMERACT Special Interest Group (SIG).\n\nMethods: Rheumatologists and industry representatives interested in gout rated and clarified, in three iterations, the importance of domains proposed by the OMERACT SIG for use in acute and chronic gout intervention studies. Consensus was defined as a value of less than 1 of the UCLA/RAND disagreement HIF pathway index.\n\nResults: There were 33 respondents (61% response rate); all agreed the initial items were necessary, except “total body urate pool”. Additional domains were suggested and clarification sought for defining “joint inflammation” and “musculoskeletal function”. Items that demonstrated no clear decision were re-rated in the final iteration. There were six highly rated items (rating 1-2) with four slightly lower rating items (rating 3) for acute gout; and 11 highly rated items with eight slightly lower ratings for chronic gout.
interleukin-2 receptor inhibitor (IL2i) in the Prograf era. We further explored the variable of race in the two groups of patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of kidney transplant patients in the USRDS from 2000 through 2005
to compare graft survival (including death) using rATG vs. IL2i with particular reference to outcomes between African-Americans vs. Caucasians. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess patient and graft survival after transplantation, stratified by recipient induction with rATG versus IL2i. Cox regression analysis ON-01910 concentration was performed to assess adjusted survival after transplantation, assessing whether induction rATG (vs. IL2i) was significant as an interaction term (i.e. an effect modifier) with black race for graft survival. Propensity score analysis was used to address potential confounding by indication. Results: In stratified Cox Regression analysis limited to IL2i, black race was significantly associated with graft loss (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.17, 95% CI, 1.09-1.26). In analysis limited to rATG induction, black race was not significant (AHR 1.00, 95% CI, 0.92-1.10). We detected a significant interaction BEZ235 research buy between rATG and black race (in comparison with non-black race) for the development of graft loss (AHR, 0.86, 95% CI, 0.76-0.97). Analysis limited to black recipients showed that while use of rATG was
not significantly different from IL2i (AHR 0.95, 95% CI 0.87-1.04), the direction of this association was in the
opposite direction of non-blacks. Conclusions: Patient and graft survival were similar in African-American and Caucasian recipients of kidney transplantation using either rATG or IL2i. Limitations of the study are the retrospective nature of USRDS data, center-bias in using rATG vs. IL2i and lack of data on steroid dosage. Results of the present study call for a critical review of induction practices. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Purpose. Transseptal puncture (TSP) allows left atrial access for curative procedures. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) provides direct visualization of the interatrial septum (IAS), but adds time and expense. We reviewed 100 cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pf-06463922.html scans of patients undergoing AF ablation to determine if the angulation and orientation of the IAS are conserved or variable. Significant variability may suggest a potential role for direct visualization of the IAS during TSP. Methods. We reviewed 100 MDCT scans obtained prior to AF ablation. The IAS plane at the fossa ovalis was identified in axial and coronal images. We measured the angle of the septum relative to an orthogonal plane. Optimal needle orientation was defined as perpendicular to the fossa ovalis. Results. The mean axial plane angle was -60.6 +/- 10.6 degrees; range, -29.5 degrees to -88.7 degrees. The mean coronal plane angle was 142.6 +/- 9.
Of the remaining 916 patients, a single abnormal Combretastatin A4 concentration gland was identified on MIBI in 682 (74%), US in 731 (80%), and concordance of both in 588 (64%). Unsuspected multiglandular disease (MGD) was identified at BE in 22%, 22%, and 20% of patients, respectively. Adding intraoperative parathyroid hormone sampling
(IOPTH) further reduced the rate of unsuspected MGD to 16%, 17%, and 16%. Overall, IOPTH correctly predicted MGD in only 22%. Neither concomitant nonsurgical thyroid disease nor more stringent selection criteria (preop Ca > 11 mg/dL and PTH > 120 pg/dL) altered success rates. In patients with MGD, a subsequent gland identified was larger than the index gland in 23%. Ninety-eight percent of BE patients were cured of F HPT.\n\nConclusions: This is the largest study to evaluate the prevalence of additional
parathyroid pathology in patients who are candidates for LE. Limitations in localizing studies and IOPTH fail to identify MGD in at least 16% of patients, risking future recurrence.”
“Four PLX4032 order specific forces (H-bonds, van der Waals forces, hydrophobic and charge interactions) shape the structure of proteins, and many biologists assume they will determine the shape of all structures in the cell. However, as the mass and contour length of a human chromosome are similar to 7 orders of magnitude larger than those of a typical protein, additional forces can become significant.
We review evidence that additional non-specific (entropic) forces are major determinants of chromosomal shape and position. They are sufficient to drive the segregation (de-mixing) of newly replicated DNA to the poles of bacterial cells, while an entropic centrifuge can both form human chromosomes into territories and position them appropriately in nuclei; more locally, a depletion attraction can loop bacterial and human genomes.”
“Human infection associated with a novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus has recently been identified in China(1). A total of 132 confirmed cases and 39 deaths have been reported(2). Most patients presented with severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome(3,4). Although the first epidemic has FRAX597 subsided, the presence of a natural reservoir and the disease severity highlight the need to evaluate its risk on human public health and to understand the possible pathogenesis mechanism. Here we show that the emerging H7N9 avian influenza virus poses a potentially high risk to humans. We discover that the H7N9 virus can bind to both avian-type (alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid) and human-type (alpha 2,6-linked sialic acid) receptors. It can invade epithelial cells in the human lower respiratory tract and type II pneumonocytes in alveoli, and replicated efficiently in ex vivo lung and trachea explant culture and several mammalian cell lines.
“Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) has protective effects in some neurodegenerative disease models, but it is not clear whether SIRT1 play the same role on inflammation-mediated Parkinson’s disease (PD) models. In this study, we firstly established an inflammation environment by stimulating microglial BV-2 cells with the inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharides NVP-BSK805 (LPS), which demonstrated by increasing of the levels of TNF-a, and IL-6 in cultured medium. Then we exposed PC12 cells (a model of catecholaminergic neuronal cells) with the supernant from LPS stimulated BV-2 cells (activated BV-2). PC12
cell apoptosis and SIRT1 involved protection were investigated. The results indicated that treatment with LPS caused significant decrease in SIRT1 expression in activated BV-2 cells, and increased the levels of TNF-a and IL-6, as measured by ELISA, whereas resveratrol (a known SIRT1 activator) suppressed this effect, which was conversely strengthened by sirtinol (a SIRT1 inhibitor), suggesting that SIRT1 may be involved in regulating proinflammatory cytokines from microglial activation. Further, we found that factors derived from activated microglia significantly decreased the level of deacetylation of p53 by reducing the expression of SIRT1, an effect that increased the apoptosis of PC12 and reduced cell viability. GSI-IX The addition
of resveratrol could protect PC12 cells from inflammation-mediated damage above-mentioned, while nicotinamide (another SIRT1 inhibitor) treatment
had the opposite effect of resveratrol. Together, these data suggests that: SIRT1 inhibits LPS-mediated proinflammatory cytokines release click here in microglia, and circumvents dopaminergic neurons injury induced by activated microglial-derived factors via p53-caspase-3-dependent mechanism of apoptosis. Thus, upregulation of SIRT1 provides a promising research field for therapeutic intervention in neuroinflammation diseases. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The current paper presents the hypothesis that the understanding of mental disorders can be advanced by incorporating the laws of thermodynamics, specifically relating to energy conservation and energy transfer. These ideas, along with the introduction of the notion that entropic activities are symptomatic of inefficient energy transfer or disorder, were used to propose a model of understanding mental ill health as resulting from the interaction of entropy, capacity and work (environmental demands). The model was applied to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and was shown to be compatible with current thinking about this condition, as well as emerging models of mental disorders as complex networks.