Queiroz et al.  studied the mechanism leading to those changes. Higher IL-1β and TNF-α gastric concentrations were observed in H. pylori positive than in negative children. Multiple linear regression models revealed gastric IL-1β, but not TNF-α, as a significant predictor of low ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations. The authors concluded
that high gastric levels of IL-1β could be the link between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia in children. Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis, increases when inflammation and infections occur. It plays a critical role in macrophage iron retention, which underlies anemia caused by inflammation/infection. Ozkasap et al.  in their prospective study examined Tamoxifen mouse prohepcidin (hepcidin’s precursor) in iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in H. pylori-infected children. The pretreatment prohepcidin levels were significantly higher in children with iron-deficiency anemia and H. pylori infection compared with the control group. The authors concluded that increased serum prohepcidin might indicate the role of inflammation in the etiology
Wnt inhibitor of anemia concurrent with H. pylori infection. Azab et al.  compared the serum hepcidin level and the response to oral iron therapy in 60 children with iron-deficiency anemia. Serum hepcidin was significantly lower in H. pylori noninfected children (p < .01) and significantly higher in H. pylori-infected children with iron-deficiency anemia. Hepcidin increased significantly in noninfected children after 3 months
of oral iron therapy. A negative correlation was demonstrated between hepcidin and serum ferritin, Hb, iron, and transferrin in H. pylori-infected children with iron-deficiency anemia. The 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 serum hepcidin level was associated with a diminished response to the oral iron therapy in children with iron-deficiency anemia and H. pylori infection. Uğraş et al.  directed their attention to a frequent intestine parasite infestation in children with H. pylori infection. In this study, among children living in low socioeconomic conditions, 5.7% of them had Blastocytosis hominis and 2 (1.9%) had Lamblia intestinalis. The co-existence of H. pylori infection and intestinal parasites has a negative effect on thriving and iron status in a growing child. Recently, guidelines on H. pylori infection in children recommend that children with refractory IDA should be tested for H. pylori infection . Wang et al.  analyzed the association between asthma and H. pylori infection. In the presented meta-analysis, pooled OR for all included studies was 0.81 (95% Cl; 0.72–0.91) in children and 0.81 (95% Cl; 0.71–1.08) in adults. The authors found a weak evidence for an inverse association between asthma and H. pylori infection both in children and in adults, To the contrary, Karimi et al.