2004) In Thailand, almost all (94%) ECT administration was unmod

2004). In Thailand, almost all (94%) ECT administration was unmodified (Chanpattana and Kramer 2004). In India, both modified and unmodified ECT was administered (Chanpattana et al. 2005b), 52% of patients received unmodified at 50% of all institutions, and 30% of institutions administered only unmodified. Overall in Asia, only 45% of facilities used modified ECT exclusively (Chanpattana et al. 2010), in Hong Kong 87% modified (Chung et al. 2003), and the Asian Pacific Region (Little Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2003) and Katmandu, Nepal, used only modified (Ahikari et al. 2008). Eight facilities in Asia reported succinylcholine muscle relaxant used routinely without anesthesia (Chanpattana et al.

2010). Anesthesia was also used without muscle relaxants in Japan, and extreme motion from the convulsions held down with aid of assistants restraining Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patient’s shoulders, arms, and thighs (Ishimoto

et al. 2000). Overall, 26% Latin American countries used unmodified ECT (Levav and Gonzalez 1996), except for all modified in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and one country in the Caribbean (Levav and Gonzalez 1996; Pastore et al. 2008). Placement and devices On a worldwide scale, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical BL placement was the preferred electrode placement. However, UL placement was the first main choice in Australia and New Zealand (O’Dea et al. 1991; Ministry of Health 2005; Chanpattana 2007; Lamont et al. 2011), likewise to several European countries such as Vienna (Tauscher et al. 1997), Munich Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Baghai et al. 2005), Netherlands (van Waarde et al. 2009), and Norway (Schweder et al. 2011b). In the United States, there was some sine wave (2%) (Prudic et al. 2001) and some UL (16–21%) (Reid et al. 1998; Scarano et al. 2000; Prudic et al. 2001) report, but BL placement (73–79%) and brief-pulse wave current (Reid et al. 1998; Scarano et al. 2000; Prudic et al. 2001) was mainstream. Similarly, brief-pulse wave current devices were dominant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in Europe, except sine-wave current still used in Spain 14% (Bertolin-Guillen et al. 2006), Russia 26% (Nelson 2005),

Belgium 34% (Sienaert et al. 2006), Poland 30% (Gazdag et al. 2009a), Germany 39% (Muller et al. 1998), and Hungary 52% (Gazdag et al. 2004a). Overall electrode placement in Asia was BL (77%) (Chanpattana et al. PDK4 2010). Thailand (Chanpattana and Kramer 2004) and Japan (Motohashi et al. 2004) reported only the use of BL and India 5-Fluoracil research buy always reported the use of BL in 82% (Chanpattana et al. 2005b). In Asia, 58% of institutions used brief-pulse devices and 42% sine wave (Chanpattana et al. 2010). In Japan, the device type was often Japanese-produced Sakai C1, but also some had Thymatron® DGx devices (Somatics, Inc., http://www.thymatron.com) (Chanpattana et al. 2005a). In India, a diversity of devices was in use, including locally made (Chanpattana et al. 2005b). In Katmandu, Nepal, device type was only brief pulse (Ahikari et al. 2008).

88 If clozapine, which is superior to other atypical antipsychoti

88 If clozapine, which is superior to other atypical antipsychotics in treating negative and cognitive symptoms,10 works through the GMS, it may be possible to achieve comparable benefits without the troubling side effects of clozapine such as agranulocytosis, weight gain, and metabolic syndrome by using other agents that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical enhance GMS occupancy. D-amino acid oxidase The peroxisomal enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) converts D-serine to hydroxy-pyruvate in the brain, yielding hydrogen peroxide

as a by-product.89 DAAO expression was originally believed to be restricted to astrocytes in the mammalian cerebellum,90 but has since been observed in neurons.91 Inhibitors of DAAO would be expected to increase D-serine in the brain, and could thereby Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical increase GMS occupancy. Direct evidence of involvement of DAAO in schizophrenia is somewhat controversial. DAAO has been implicated as a putative schizophrenia gene by linkage and

association methods, but meta-analyses have revealed that the disease-associated variants of the gene are different across studies,92,93precluding a simple functional hypothesis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical based on the JAK2 inhibitors clinical trials findings. Postmortem studies of brain DAAO expression in schizophrenia have reported elevated transcript levels and enzyme activity.69,94-96 G72, a mysterious Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical putative interacting protein of DAAO, is coded for in a linkage region identified for schizophrenia by multiple studies, and considered one of the strongest genetic risk factors for schizophrenia identified using linkage analysis. The link between G72 and DAAO originates from a yeast 2-hybrid study from which DAAO emerged as a G72 inter-actor.97 An in vitro functional assay suggested that G72 protein is an activator Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of DAAO; but more recent studies demonstrate that it inhibits DAAO.

According to this conceptualization, mutations in G72 would result in disinhibition of DAAO, thereby reducing the availability of D-serine. However, despite significant attention paid to it pursuant to its repeated appearance in the schizophrenia genetic literature, to date the protein has been observed only in heterologous expression systems. It should be noted that DAAO activity is not specific to D-serine, so manipulating the activity of this enzyme the can affect the levels of other D-amino acids. Several pharmaceutical companies have established DAAO inhibitor programs. While there are no published clinical data, preclinical studies have revealed promising behavioral effects. Adage et al98 reported that DAAO inhibitor, AS057278, significantly increased cortical Dserine, corrected PCP induced prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits and normalized PCP-induced hyperactivity, a behavioral surrogate for psychosis.

In a single-session procedure, the reduction of complication rate

In a single-session procedure, the reduction of complication rates is not only because of the reduction in the number of procedures as well as single anesthesia, but more importantly through the simultaneous access during the procedure. The robustness of the approach lies in its complementary nature. In our experience almost a quarter of single-step hybrid atrial fibrillation procedures needed a touch-up with an see more endocardial catheter ablation to finish incomplete epicardial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical surgical lesions. In addition, the mitral isthmus line and the cavo-tricuspid isthmus line can only be performed when combined with an endocardial approach. In redo procedures, a knowledge of the effect of the previous endocardial

procedure(s) will guide the epicardial technique. The efficacy of this procedure as well as its superiority over catheter ablation or standard surgical techniques has to be proven by large comparative studies with

long-term follow-up. Acknowledgments I gratefully Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical thank Ken Frazier for the English revision of the manuscript. Footnotes Conflict of interest: Dr La Meir is a consultant for Atricure.
Specific patients seem to benefit from off-pump CABG compared with conventional CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass. The effectiveness of off-pump Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical procedures is still debated in elderly patients undergoing isolated CABG operations. Ricci et al. investigated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the potential benefits of coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for octogenarians.2 They studied 269 octogenarians who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, of whom 172 had the operation with CPB and 97 without CPB (off-pump group). Findings suggested that: 1) A greater proportion of reoperations was observed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the off-pump cohort (16 of 97 (16.5%)) compared with the CPB cohort

(8 of 172 (4.7%)) (P = 0.002); 2) Freedom from postoperative complications was higher in the off-pump group than in the CPB group (83 of 97 (85.6%) versus 129 of 172 (75%), P = 0.04); 3) The incidence of stroke was 0% in the off-pump cohort compared with 9.3% (16 of 172) in the CPB cohort (P < 0.0005). These findings suggest that patients 80 years of age and older undergoing off-pump CABG can experience significantly lower rates of perioperative stroke and overall complications compared with those undergoing the same procedure with CPB. In the same vein, Demaria et al. studied 125 TCL patients older than 80 years of age who were operated for isolated myocardial revascularization (63 using CPB and 62 with off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB)) over a 5-year period (1995–1999).3 These groups were comparable in terms of: 1) Preoperative co-morbidities; 2) Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (54.5% ± 15.3% in the CPB group and 50.9% ± 13.5% in the OPCAB group); and 3) The mean number of distal anastomoses per patient (2.

Nevertheless, there is sufficient promise in results that contin

Nevertheless, there is sufficient promise in results that continued investigation and the hope for a clearer understanding of mechanisms underlying observed effects is warranted. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health (5R37AG-006265-25 and (NIA grant 5R01AG026589-05).
Of the

seasons of the year, the autumn is most melancholy… (Burton, 1621)1 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical As a science matures, it pays more attention to the temporal dynamics of its target phenomena. The relatively young discipline of psychiatry shows exactly this trajectory, with the temporal dimension receiving growing research interest. This development is quite obvious Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the domain of mood disorders, where time features in the diagnostic description, phenomenology, and increasingly our causal understanding of the disorders. It is therefore timely to provide an overview of this expanding area. The aims of this article, are fourfold. First, we introduce some philological considerations about the relationship between time and mood. Secondly, we Selumetinib review the (largely European) clinical literature which has focused Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on the sense

of time in mood disorder phenomenology. Thirdly, we provide a synopsis of the range of empirical evidence indicating that biological timing (particularly circadian rhythms and sleep/wake processes) is critical in the etiology of mood disorders. Finally, we present nonlinear dynamical approaches applied to the analysis of the measures related to psychological Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical time series. The intent of the article is to encourage an open, multidisciplinary approach to generate testable hypotheses about temporality in the mood disorders. Contributions of philology and natural philosophy As often

happens in the evolution of theoretical concepts relevant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to psychopathology, early intuitions and illuminating insights can often be found in ancient mythology, philosophy, and art.2 Since ancient times in Western culture, melancholia and mania have been related to characterological and temperamental constellations of the Greek god, Kronos, and of his Latin counterpart, Saturn. Later, the implacable influence of the planet Saturn was often invoked as a symbolic representation of older religious Unoprostone archetypes, even as naturalistic approaches to the study of mood disorders emerged during the Renaissance.3 The Kronos-Saturn hybrid can be summed up as a quintessential ambivalent coexistence of contradictory forces of light and darkness, life and death, rationality and folly, of the highest and most sublime spiritual contemplations and most miserable and lowest confinements of the world, or even the netherworld. The concept was conceived of as the “absolute master of time,” the mighty principle of cosmologic unity, the “One that devours and consumes everything.

In that case, antidepressants

In that case, antidepressants should definitely be used, since they may lower the relapse rate. The reverse of alcohol-Induced depression, namely depression-induced alcoholism, can also be observed. Drinking may be secondary to depression, when alcohol Is used as self -medication by the patient. The alcoholic may drink to relieve his mind from sorrow, fear, and despondency, or to combat loneliness or the blues. Since alcohol absorption may have a transient arousing or mood-lifting effect,

this strategy has some Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical short-term benefit, but It Is doomed in the long run. In fact, as described In the paragraph above, the paradox is that chronic use of alcohol Is more likely to make the subject more withdrawn, more depressed, or more anxious. However, It should be remembered that, although depression can lead to alcoholism, most cases Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of alcoholism are not explained by primary depression,

contrary to popular belief. A primary mood disorder should be particularly suspected In certain circumstances, notably In females and In the cases of early-onset drinking. Also, the possibility Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of bipolar disorder should be kept In mind. Women may be more at risk than men to develop this form of secondary alcoholism. The hypothesis that depressive VEGFR inhibitor symptoms predicted subsequent alcohol problems for females, whereas alcohol problems predicted subsequent depressive symptoms for males, was tested In a random sample of 1306 adults from Erie County, New York, assessed In 1986, 1989, and 1993. 9 Measures of alcohol

problems In the previous year included an alcohol abuse/dependence diagnosis and a heavy alcohol Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical use Index. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was used to assess depressive symptoms over 1 month. For females, depressive symptoms predicted subsequent alcohol problems over 3 years (odds ratio 3.04; 95% confidence Interval [CI] 1.35-6.80; P<0.01) and 4 years (odds ratio 2.42; 95% CI 1.14-5.12; P<0.05), but not for 7 years. Similarly, another study showed that the risk of heavy drinking was 2.6 times greater In women with a history of depressive disorder than in women with no history of depressive disorder.10 Early-onset drinking may often be secondary to a primary psychiatric disorder. This notion Is supported by a study11 that found that 81% of 339 alcoholics had associated mental disorders. Alcoholics with onset of heavy drinking those before 20 years of age had significantly more antisocial personality traits, drug abuse, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, suicide attempts, and paternal alcoholism than alcoholics with onset after age 20 years. Alcoholics with onset before and after 20 years of age also differed significantly from each other for cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of somatostatin. Bipolar disorder It Is too often ignored that episodic drinking may be a symptom of bipolar illness.

Autobiographical memory recall has been suggested to play a key r

Autobiographical memory recall has been suggested to play a key role in the experience of a continuous sense of self across time, and activation of the default mode network may be underlying this process since it has been shown to be active when individuals are engaged in internally focused or self-referential tasks, learn more including autobiographical memory retrieval, envisioning the future, and theory of mind.80 Patients with PTSD have been shown to have alterations in self-referential processing, including autobiographical memory recall,81,82 future-oriented thinking,83 and theory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of mind.84,85 Moreover, default mode network functioning which has been proposed

to be the underlying mechanism of these interrelated processes has been shown to be altered in PTSD.86-88 The relationship between self-referential processing, in particular autobiographical memory recall, the default mode network, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and brain networks involved in memory reconsolidation will therefore be an important avenue of future research. Can reconsolidation blockade affect other mental disorders? Substance addiction is a progressive psychopathology that

leads to compulsive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical substance- taking behavior. Even after long periods of abstinence, relapse is quite common.89 Cues in the environment that have acquired an associative relationship with substances are thought to contribute to substance taking and relapse.90 There are at least two properties of cues associated with substances that could contribute to substance -taking behavior. First, they can acquire rewarding and reinforcing properties unto themselves,91 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Second, they can induce the resumption of substance-taking behavior (relapse).92,93

These cue-substance associations are very persistent and resistant to the extinction protocols used to decrease the strength of these conditioned Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical responses in humans94,95 or animals.96 Thus, in the clinic, extinction-based treatments have, to date, not been very effective. Craving is also thought to be a process that mediates the effect of substance-related cues on relapse.97,98 Animal models of drug addiction have reported that the neurobiological mechanisms of craving undergo reconsolidation. When blocked, craving can reduce the ability of substance-related cues to induce relapse.99 To date, targeting craving via reconsolidation Rutecarpine blockage has shown to be the only short-term effective treatment (ie, onetime intervention) of relapse-prevention. Consequently, targeting reconsolidation of the mechanisms that mediate drug craving should increase the likelihood of longterm abstinence in humans.90 Two elegant studies have reported the effects of targeting reconsolidation on craving mechanisms in opiate-100 or cocaine-101 dependent drug users with amazing success. Using a behavioral procedure akin to interference, Xue100 reported that craving in opiate addicts was reduced when reconsolidation was blocked.

93,94 Strikingly, however,

at the 1-day delay, the

93,94 Strikingly, however,

at the 1-day delay, the details associated with negative simulations were remembered significantly less often than the details associated with positive and neutral simulations. We related this finding to previous studies that have documented a phenomenon known as “fading affect bias”: emotional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reactions tend to fade more quickly over time for negative than positive everyday experiences.95 Perhaps rapid fading of negative affect over time rendered details associated with negative simulations more difficult to recall than those associated with positive or neutral simulations. Although additional research will be required to understand this finding, it may be related in interesting ways to the simulation of RG7204 manufacturer future events in clinical populations with affective disorders. A number of studies have shown that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients with depression96,97 and anxiety98,99 exhibit impaired simulations of future events that tend to lack specific detail and are often negatively biased. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical These observations, as well as related observations of impaired future simulations in other psychiatric and neurological disorders (for reviews, see refs 19,78), highlight the clinical relevance of research concerning imagining the future. They also suggest that it will be interesting to examine memory for positive and negative

simulations in depressed and anxious patients in order to determine whether patterns consistent with x201c;fading affect bias” — ie, impaired recall Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of negative simulations after a long delay versus a short delay — are absent or reduced in such patients. Distinguishing betwee true and false memories The observation that memory and imagination depend, at

least Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in part, on a common neural network, raises an important question: how does the brain distinguish between memories for actual past experiences and those that have only been imagined? One clue comes from the Addis et al86 study discussed earlier, in which participants were scanned while remembering actual events consisting of key person-place-object details, or imagining experiences comprised of recombined details from different memories. As in previous studies, the core Thymidine kinase network discussed earlier was activated for both remembering and imagining. In addition, however, Addis et al86 noted that distinct subsystems within the core network were preferentially associated with imagining and remembering, respectively. The imagining network consisted of medial temporal lobe including anterior hippocampus, bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, polar and posterior temporal cortex, and medial parietal cortex. The remembering network included posterior visual cortices such as fusiform, lingual and occipital gyri and cuneus, as well as parahippocampal gyrus and posterior hippocampus.

012) Nevertheless, the error rate was lower than 10% in all con

012). Nevertheless, the error rate was lower than 10% in all conditions

in both groups. Figure 2 Behavioral auditory task results in the AAT group and in control group. Task was performed in the audiolab and in the MR scanner. Intrasubject reaction-time variability and error rate were significantly higher in the AAT group. fMRI A synopsis of statistically significant differences between the AAT group and the control group is presented in Table 2. No significant abnormal activation could be elicited for the “Novel” sounds. With “Target” sounds, several distinct regions displayed abnormal activations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the AAT group compared to the control group (see “Target vs. baseline” and “Target vs. Standard” in Table 2). Significant hyperactivations (Fig. 3) were found in a variety of structures involved in emotional response including the prefrontal cortex, the anterior and middle cingulate

gyrus, and the insula. We also found abnormalities in regions generally considered as important for motor preparation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and motor feedbacks Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical such as premotor cortex (BA6), supplementary motor area (SMA), and in deep gray matter such as substantia nigra. Hyperactivity was also observed in the BA19 area, which corresponds to the visual associative peristriate cortex. Table 2 MNI coordinates of hyperactivations found in AAT group (N = 19) versus control group (N = 19) during an auditory oddball task. www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk1120212-jtp-74057.html Significance assessed at P < 0.001, uncorrected and extent >20 voxels Figure 3 Overall view of the differences of contrast between the AAT Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical group (N = 19) and the control group (N = 19); AAT > controls, in the “target sounds vs. baseline” contrast using an

auditory oddball task. Significance assessed at P … Interestingly, in the AAT group, significant hyperactivations were found in the limited region of the Rolandic operculum (Brodmann area [BA] 43), extending into the inferior parietal loblule (BA 43/40). At the MNI coordinates (42, −18, 18) corresponding to the maximal response, hyperactivation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was correlated with the combination of tinnitus periodicity and TRQ score classes (Spearman’s rho, r = 0.66, P < 0.001) (Fig. 4). A similar trend was observed when subjects were classified according to tinnitus periodicity alone, less to TRQ score alone, but the difference did not reach significance (P = 0.14 Bay 11-7085 and P = 0.35, respectively; Mann–Whitney U test), possibly due to the small number of cases. No such correlation of overactivation at combination of tinnitus periodicity and TRQ score was found with other MNI coordinates. Figure 4 fMRI image and graph of mean voxel intensities at MNI coordinates 42, −18, 18 (BA 43/40) of the significant difference between AAT subjects and Control subjects for the contrast “Target vs. Baseline.” Mean voxel intensities were … We have recently localized the cortical representation of the middle-ear superficial proprioception (i.e.

We could almost say that “a living being is a memory that acts ”

We could almost say that “a living being is a memory that acts.” A third brain is added to the first two: the cerebral cortex. In humans it has developed considerably and is called the association cortex. What does this mean? It means that this third brain associates

the underlying neural pathways, which bear the trace of past experiences, and combines them differently from the way they were imprinted by the environment at the time of the experience itself. Humans, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that is, are able to create, to generate imaginary processes. [...] So, these are our three brains. The first two operate unconsciously – we do not know what they have us do. These are the instinctive urges, cultural reflexes. The third brain gives us an explanatory language, which always provides an excuse, an alibi, for the unconscious functioning of the first two brains. [...] One can distinguish four main types of behaviors. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The first is the behavior

of consumption, that satisfies basic needs. The second is a behavior of gratification—when we experience an action that yields Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pleasure, we try to repeat it. The third is a behavior in response to punishment, either by flight to avoid it or by fight to destroy the source of aggression. The last is a behavior of inhibition: no movement, tense waiting, rising anxiety. Anxiety marks the impossibility of mastering a situation. [...] When two individuals have different plans or the same plan and compete to carry it out, there is a winner and a loser. One of the individuals becomes dominant over the other. Seeking dominance, in a space one can call the territory, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is the fundamental basis of all human behaviors, the motivation of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this being wholly unconscious. So there is no property instinct; nor is there a dominance instinct. There is simply the process whereby, Wnt inhibitor through the nervous system, the individual learns to keep for himself an object or a being that is also wanted, coveted by another being. And the

individual knows, through this learning process, that in this competitive situation if he wants to hold onto the object or being, he must dominate. [...] Through language humans have been able to transmit from generation to generation Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase all the experience they have acquired over millennia [...] In other words, our instinctive urges and our cultural reflexes will be masked by language, by a logical argument. Language therefore helps hide the cause of dominance, the underlying mechanisms, and the establishment of dominance. It makes the individual believe that by working for the common good he will experience his own pleasure. Whereas, in general, all he does is to maintain hierarchical situations that are obscured by linguistic alibis, which in a way serve him as an excuse. [...] Among humans, social laws generally proscribe defensive violence.

This will also ensure consistent distribution of information amon

This will also ensure consistent distribution of information amongst staff and that any gains produced by the training are uniform across the range of services and staff roles. These

palliative care staff will be recruited from both in-patient and community palliative care settings. Participant groups A total sample size of 60 was calculated, based on a predicted medium effect Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical size and a statistical power level above 0.8 [16]. Two palliative care services will be recruited into the study with 30 staff from both hospital-based and community based settings recruited from each service. Participants at each site will be randomised to either the intervention condition or the wait-list control condition (no intervention apart from the collection of outcome data). This control group will be see more offered the training following completion of the study. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical All attempts will be made to ensure that the sample size and the distribution of participants’ professional discipline within the palliative care team (e.g. nursing, occupational therapy, etc.) will be even across sites and conditions. Intervention Program: “Training program for professional carers to recognise and manage depression in palliative care settings” The depression training program, titled Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical “Training

program for professional carers to recognise and manage depression in palliative care settings”, was developed by drawing from the

researchers’ experience with depression training in the aged care setting [17,18] and subsequently adapting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this framework to the palliative care setting. A literature review pertaining to depression and psychosocial care in palliative care settings was conducted, and information relevant to the objectives of the study was Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical extracted. This evidence-based information was then used to inform the content of the training program. from In addition to the literature review, a needs analysis was also conducted which involved focus group interviews with managerial palliative care staff, non-managerial palliative care staff, and family members of patients currently receiving palliative care. These interviews were thematically analysed and information relating to staff knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and perceived barriers to depression detection and care provision were extracted and used to further inform the development of the training program. The final program consisted of four sessions focussing on the following main topics: Understanding depression, detecting depression, responding to depression and a focus on the patient’s family members.