5 Tesla MAGNETOM Vision
MRI scanner (Erlangen, Germany) as described in Dosenbach et al. (2010). The third data set (n = 106: a 53 subject cohort, 52 subject cohort, and an additional single subject) was acquired on a Siemens MAGNETOM Tim Trio 3.0T Scanner with a Siemens 12 channel Head Matrix Coil (Erlangen, Germany) as described in Dosenbach et al. Buparlisib (2010). See Supplemental Experimental Procedures for acquisition details. Functional images underwent standard fMRI preprocessing to reduce artifacts, register subjects to a target atlas, and resample the data on a 3 mm isotropic grid (Shulman et al., 2010). See Supplemental Experimental Procedures for further details. For rs-fcMRI analyses, several additional preprocessing steps were utilized to reduce spurious variance unlikely to reflect neuronal activity (Fox et al., 2009). These steps included: (1), a temporal band-pass filter (0.009 Hz < f < 0.08 Hz) and spatial smoothing
(6 mm full width at half maximum); (2), regression of six parameters obtained by rigid body head motion correction; (3), regression of the whole brain signal averaged across the whole brain; (4), regression of ventricular signal averaged from ventricular ROIs; and (5), regression of white matter signal Sirolimus averaged from white matter ROIs. The first derivatives of these regressors were also regressed. The first method of identifying putative functional areas searched a large fMRI data set acquired in a single scanner (data set 1) for brain regions that reliably displayed significant activity when certain tasks were performed (e.g., button-pressing) or certain signal types (e.g., error-related activity) were expected (see Table S1). Meta-analyses identified 322 ROIs (10 mm diameter spheres, see Figure S1), which were reduced to a final collection of 151 nonoverlapping meta-analytic ROIs. Full details of meta-analyses are available in Supplemental Experimental Procedures. fc-Mapping techniques were applied to
eyes-open fixation rs-fcMRI data from 40 healthy young adults (data set 2: 27 M/13 F, average age = 26.4 years old, average RMS movement = first 0.42 mm, average number of volumes = 432). See Cohen et al. (2008) and Nelson et al. (2010a) for full conceptual and technical descriptions of fc-Mapping on cortical patches. Here, patches extending over the entire cortical surface (one per hemisphere) were used to define putative functional areas. This technique generated 254 ROIs across the cortex, which were reduced to a final set of 193 nonoverlapping ROIs. See Supplemental Experimental Procedures for further details. Meta-analytic ROIs and fc-Mapping ROIs were merged to form a maximally-spanning collection of ROIs. Meta-analytic ROIs were given preference, and nonoverlapping fc-Mapping ROIs were then added, resulting in 264 independent ROIs. A 90-node parcel-based network was formed by using the 90-parcel automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas (Tzourio-Mazoyer et al.