Infections directly affecting muscle are rare in the Western worl

Infections directly affecting muscle are rare in the Western world. Similarly eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, toxic oil syndrome and macrophagic myofasciitis are very rare, and the latter essentially confined to France. There is increasing evidence that statins may induce an immune-mediated necrotising myopathy which persists on statin withdrawal and responds to immunosuppressant drug therapy [38] and [39]. It is of note that statins can also induce potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis through presumed metabolic dysfunction–the condition is self-limiting but in the immediate aftermath the appearance of a necrotising myopathy may be very similar to the immune-mediated

disorder. Granulomata in muscle are sometimes sought in order to confirm a diagnosis of sarcoidosis, but clinically significant muscle disease is rare. A clinical pattern similar to sIBM, with distal Bcl2 inhibitor weakness affecting the finger flexors, has been described [40]. Response to immunosuppressant S3I-201 chemical structure therapy is often poor. As with sarcoidosis, many

vasculitides may produce changes in muscle that can aid diagnosis, but clinically significant muscle involvement is rare. The frequent coexistence of myositis with symptoms and signs of CTD is striking. Previous authors have distinguished, in arguably somewhat arbitrary fashion, between associated and overlapping conditions [41]. For the purposes of this classification I have considered two scenarios. Firstly, the occurrence of myositis with a clearly defined all CTD–the CTD should fulfill its own diagnostic criteria. Rarely PM may be seen in association with rheumatoid arthritis. Muscle involvement may also be secondary to neuropathy and vasculitis. Equally rarely, SLE and Sjögren’s syndrome can be associated with either DM or PM. Myositis is somewhat more common in association

with scleroderma and mixed connective-tissue disease (MCTD), and is often of the “non-specific” type. The anti-PM/Scl antibody may be seen in patients with scleroderma-myositis, but also in patients with isolated myositis. MCTD is a somewhat contentious entity–clinical features in addition to myositis include swollen hands (with acrosclerosis), Raynaud’s phenomenon, pulmonary involvement, and the presence of the extractable nuclear antigen U1 snRNP. The anti-synthetase syndrome was described earlier. The immune-mediated disorders include DM and PM defined by the clinical and immunopathological features discussed earlier. In particular, PM requires the specific finding of endomysial inflammatory infiltrates surrounding, and preferably invading, non-necrotic muscle fibres which are expressing MHC-1. In both categories, patients may have features of a CTD but not with enough features to allow the diagnosis of a specific condition. Clinical features may include Raynaud’s phenomenon, arthralgia, and arthritis, and serological markers anti-nuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-PM/Scl, and others.

In these experiments shocks appear periodically,

In these experiments shocks appear periodically, buy Birinapant but a tone or a light signals that there will be no shock for a period of time. If there is no signal present shock can occur at any moment, but when the signal is present the organism is safe. Other experimental groups receive identical shocks and tones or lights, but the stimuli are randomly related to the shocks and have no predictive value. The presence of such safety cues blunt the behavioral impact of the shocks as does control, but the mPFC does not mediate the protective effects of the safety signals. Inactivation of the mPFC does not diminish the effects of safety

signals, but instead the insular cortex is required (Christianson et al., 2008b). However, insular cortex inactivation does not reduce the beneficial effects of control, providing a double dissociation. Recall that we have argued that immunization against future stressors is mediated by mPFC plasticity, and the safety signals, which do not utilize the mPFC, also do not produce immunization. That is, even though the provision of safety cues reduce the impact of the stressor being

experienced, it does not reduce the impact of future stressors (Christianson and Greenwood, 2014). Voluntary exercise provides another example. Access to a running wheel for 4–6 weeks blocks the typical DRN activation and behavioral effects (shuttlebox escape deficits, potentiated fear conditioning, reduced juvenile investigation, etc) of IS (Greenwood either et al., 2003). However, mPFC lesions do not reduce the stressor-blunting selleck effectiveness of exercise (Greenwood et al., 2013), and exercise appears to act directly on the DRN, upregulating somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors so that autoinhibiton of these cells is enhanced. The prediction would be that the effects of exercise on DRN-mediated behavioral effects would only persist as long as these receptors remain downregulated. Of course, exercise alters many other processes as well. If different resistance/resilience inducing factors are mediated by different mechanisms, then it might be expected that each factor will blunt a unique set of reactions to adverse events. For example, it was noted

above that behavioral control does not modulate the HPA reaction to the stressor, but exercise, which does not exert its effects via the mPFC, does blunt HPA responses to subsequent stressors (Hare et al., 2014). Each consequence of stressor exposure is proximately controlled by its own neural structure or circuit, and different resistance/resilience inducing manipulations will impact on these with different patterns, depending on the circuit that these manipulations utilize. It is not a matter of too much or too little of a transmitter, a hormone, etc., but rather a specific neural circuit. It should be noted that not all of the reported data studying the effects of IS, or ES-IS comparisons point to the same characteristics and mechanism(s).

Some LGN cells are achromatic, responding only to luminous intens

Some LGN cells are achromatic, responding only to luminous intensity, while others are modulated by specific colors, typically classified as belonging to one of three wavelengths: short, medium and long (Wiesel and Hubel, 1966). Later work has shown a rich set of color-opponent pairs in CRFs (Reid and Shapley, 2002). We refer the reader to Solomon and Lennie for a review of color vision physiology (Solomon and Lennie, 2007). Selectivity for long wavelengths in the LGN is most common, in agreement with the large number of cones that are selective for long wavelengths (Wiesel and Hubel, 1966). Krüger determined that color-specific cells made up 90% of the population (Krüger, 1977).

Most cells displayed these characteristics when the stimulus was larger than the receptive field. The visual path is segregated into Sirolimus cost three major divisions at the LGN, magnocellular (M), parvocellular (P), and koniocellular (K), with functional differences between divisions largely consistent across species (Derrington

and Lennie, 1984, O’Keefe et NLG919 concentration al., 1998, Usrey and Reid, 2000, White et al., 2001 and Xu et al., 2001). M cells are typically achromatic, respond to higher temporal frequencies, and have large CRF centers. P cells have color-opponent structure in primates with input from two cone classes at middle and long wavelengths (Jacobs, 2008), respond to lower temporal frequencies, and have small CRF centers. Most K cells that have been described have strong input from short wavelength cones and have blue-on or blue-off CRF structure ( Hendry and Reid, 2000, Martin et al., 1997 and Tailby et al., 2008). According to Xu et al., a much isothipendyl larger portion of K cells, 34%, cannot be driven by drifting gratings, compared to only 9% of M cells and 6% of P cells ( Xu et al., 2001). Recent work in primates has shown

the presence of K cells with orientation selectivity that might help explain the findings of weak responses to grating stimuli ( Cheong et al., 2013). K cell characteristics also vary across K layers, suggesting that there might be several classes of K cells, and appear to be more heterogeneous across species ( Hendry and Reid, 2000). Xu and colleagues, as well as O’Keefe et al. (1998), looked only at owl monkeys but their combined findings agree with what Usrey and Reid found in both owl and squirrel monkeys, and with what Norton and Casagrande found in the pro-simian galago ( Norton and Casagrande, 1982). Both Xu et al. and Usrey and Reid’s studies found that spatial summation was linear for all LGN cells that fit the linearity-testing criterion of responding well to drifting gratings (subsequently some of the recorded K cells were not tested for linearity). Xu et al. focused on the properties of K cells while O’Keefe et al. and Usrey and Reid looked primarily at M and P cell properties. The characteristics of M and P cells that O’Keefe et al.

This is particularly applicable for purification development wher

This is particularly applicable for purification development where protein compositions

could differ markedly across a microplate. The contrasting slopes for lysozyme and BSA standard curves when measured in both protein assays in Fig. 7 provide an indication of the noise that could be encountered. For these reasons, the differential method for reducing sugar quantification ZD1839 clinical trial is better suited to samples purified to a greater extent, further downstream in the purification process. Due to its simplicity and ease of automation, particularly when compared to kinetic assays (e.g. kinetic QCL), the PyroGene™ assay was qualified as the principal endotoxin assay [41]. As displayed in Fig. 8, the log–log standard curves were consistent and exhibited good fit with R2 > 0.99 across a range of 0.01–20 endotoxin Screening Library units (EU)/mL. Precision was found to average 7% RSD across the tested range. Several incubation temperatures were evaluated in parallel with the standard incubation temperature of 37 °C ( Fig. 8). Lowering the incubation temperature did not have a deleterious effect on the reproduction of the standard curve. Enabling the incubation period to occur at room temperature is helpful when automating assays with liquid-handling robots situated in room temperature environments. The potential for

various substances to interfere with the PyroGene™ assay was evaluated through positive product control samples (Fig. 9). In these samples, endotoxin was spiked to a final concentration of 1 EU/mL in the presence

of a concentration series of various impurities (i.e. proteins, sugars, and DNA). Chondroitin sulfate, DNA, sodium alginate, ι-carrageenan, and several anionic capsular mafosfamide polysaccharides (data not shown) inhibited the PyroGene™ assay. The severity of the inhibition was high, with dilutions to <1 μg/mL required to abolish the effect. The inhibition was consistent across assays performed on multiple days with freshly made solutions, with multi-day variability of ∼27% (data not shown). Each of the inhibitors was an anionic polysaccharide but other anionic polysaccharides such as HA, gellan gum, and N-acetyl neuraminic acid did not react, nor did the acidic protein, BSA. A common structural feature between the DNA, ι-carrageenan, and chondroitin sulfate is the presence of sulfates. Every species with a sulfate that was tested was found to inhibit the assay, but other anionic groups did not interfere consistently. For example, none of the uronic acid-containing polysaccharides reacted except for sodium alginate (and chondroitin sulfate, which also has sulfate groups). The mechanisms for inhibition are unknown but possibly due to electrostatic interactions with the zwitterionic endotoxin.

The area of research combining molecular Biotechnology and Agricu

The area of research combining molecular Biotechnology and Agriculture is called Molecular farming or pharming. The proteins produced in transgenic plants for therapeutic use, are of three types – (i) antibodies, (b) proteins and (iii) vaccines. Antibodies directed against dental caries, rheumatoid arthritis, cholera, E. click here coli diarrhea, malaria, certain cancers, HIV, rhinovirus,

influenza, hepatitis B virus and herpes simplex virus are known to be produced in transgenic plants. Vaccines against infectious diseases of the gastro intestinal tract have been produced in plants like potato and bananas. 18 The another appropriate target would be cereal grains. An anti cancer antibody has recently expressed in rice and wheat seed that recognizes cells of lung, breast and colon cancer and hence could be useful in both diagnosis and therapy in the future. Selleckchem Kinase Inhibitor Library 19 Important advantage of GM food is its enhanced ability to withstand long-distance transportation. The GM crops are picked, when still green are allowed to ripen during transportation, therefore yielding a longer shelf life. Even with prolonged shipping and storing periods, the product reaches its destination without spoiling. According to the manufacturers of these GM crops, using these seeds will yield a number of benefits, including increased yields and decreased costs. They push GM crops as a second “Green

Revolution” in a World, with billions of hungry mouths to feed. The use of transgenic crops was an issue for many years. Many concerns have been raised and these are falling into two categories. 1. A concern, about what affect genetically Endonuclease modified material, could have on human health. For example, transgenic crops have been suggested to cause allergies in some people, although

it is uncertain, whether transgenic crops are the source of this reaction.20 Furthermore, the antibiotic resistance genes, placed in these crops have been suggested to cause resistance to antibiotics, leading to super bugs, which cannot be killed with antibiotic treatments.21 The population being uncomfortable with ingesting DNA that originated from another source, like virus or bacteria. The following are, however, potential issues of concern for plant protein production. 1. Allergic reactions to plant protein glycans and other plant antigens. In the United States the Coordinated framework for Regulation of Biotechnology governs the regulation of transgenic organisms, including plants. The Government’s view, which we share, is that, this is impractical and that the methods recommended by the World Health Organization are adequate to ensure that any possibility of an adverse effect on human health from a GM food can be detected. The three Agencies involved in this are: ➢ USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service who state that the Biotechnology Regulatory Services (BRS) program of the U.S.

After we observed the augmentation of in vitro TAM sensitivity by

After we observed the augmentation of in vitro TAM sensitivity by CHO10 in HER2-overexpressing TAM-resistant breast cancer cells, the in vivo anti-tumor effects of CHO10 were examined. SK-BR-3 or BT474 cells were subcutaneously injected into nude

mice, but no tumor growth was observed. Therefore, we attempted to use two other HER2-positive cancer cell lines, which were the DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line ( Bunn et al., 2001) and the NCI-H460 large cell lung cancer cell line ( LaBonte et al., 2011) to test the anti-tumor effect of CHO10 on in vivo xenograft tumors. When the NCI-H460 or DLD-1 subcutaneously implanted xenograft tumors reached a minimum of 250 mm3 (10 days after cell injection), the mice were randomly Cilengitide grouped (three mice per group) and treated with either the vehicle alone (control) or 1 mg/kg of CHO10 five times every

2 days. As shown in Fig. 5, the tumor volumes for the subjects treated with CHO10 were Anti-cancer Compound Library research buy significantly reduced in comparison to the untreated controls for both NCI-H460 and DLD-1 cells. These results suggest that CHO10 exhibited excellent anti-tumor effects in the mouse xenograft model. HER2 overexpression is detected in the cells of many types of tumors but is mainly found in breast, gastric, ovarian and lung cancers (Carpenter and Cohen, 1990 and Scholl et al., 2001). This trait is a problem in anticancer therapeutics for the following reasons: (1) HER2 forms dimers with itself or with other HER family members without ligand-binding. HER2 overexpression is the determinant in the dimerization process (Tzahar et al., 1996). Homo- and Bumetanide hetero-dimers of HER2 trigger tyrosine autophosphorylation and then augment intracellular signaling cascades, leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis

(Wolf-Yadlin et al., 2006). (2) HER2 overexpression reduces wild type p53 expression, which causes cancer cells to become resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy (Zheng et al., 2004). (3) HER2 overexpression induces resistance against anticancer drugs including trastuzumab (HER2 extracellular domain-targeting monoclonal antibody (mAb)), lapatinib (EGFR/HER2 dual TKI) and TAM (estrogen receptor antagonist) (Benz et al., 1993, Chung et al., 2002 and Valabrega et al., 2007). Therefore, the down-regulation of HER2 expression can be a good strategy in combination regimens with HER2-targeting anticancer drugs or HER2-mediated resistance-inducing drugs. HER2 overexpression is achieved by an uncontrolled transcription rate when the ESX transcription factor binds to both the HER2 promoter and Sur2 (Chang et al., 1997 and Asada et al., 2002). Dithiiranylmethyloxy azaxanthone, CHO10, inhibited the ESX–Sur2 interaction in a dose-dependent manner with a potency that was similar to 3 μM canertinib (Fig. 1A and B), which leads to a reduction of HER2 gene amplification and protein expression.

Graded exposure to the brain mechanisms involved in movement, via

Graded exposure to the brain mechanisms involved in movement, via graded motor imagery (Moseley et al 2012), decreases pain and disability in severe complex regional pain syndrome and phantom limb pain (Moseley 2004, Moseley 2006). For post-traumatic stress disorder, graded exposure

using virtual reality shows clear decreases in the number and severity of erroneous fear responses (Parsons and Rizzo 2008). While supplemental oxygen provides no greater reduction in refectory dyspnoea than medical air, cognitive behavioural therapy and guided imagery decrease the intensity of dyspnoea (Williams 2011). Although multidisciplinary management of persistent pain has made many recent advances, we still encounter therapists who exhaust their traditional treatment armouries and referral bases and then default to advising the patient that ‘we can’t reduce the pain PLK inhibitor any further,

so you will need to cope and live with it’. The same approach is observed in the management of chronic dyspnoea and other unhelpful survival perceptions. This therapeutic endpoint reflects a limited exploration of the neurocognitive mechanisms underpinning chronic Ibrutinib solubility dmso sensory experiences. Perhaps this reluctance to let go of a Descartian model of perception reflects our desire for simple solutions. Perhaps it reflects what Francis Bacon saw as an attempt to hang on to old opinions – as though we don’t have enough on our plate as it is. We may, however, have no choice. There is a growing body of evidence that survival perceptions can be modified. Rather than targeting the physiological, behavioural, and psychosocial secondary effects of survival perceptions, we could prioritise interventions that target the perception itself. Yes, it is a lofty goal, but without

lofty goals, we cannot expect lofty achievements. “
“Agreement about the meaning of technical terms is valuable Cytidine deaminase for communication within a health profession. It facilitates mutual understanding during communication about patients and their management, research, education, and professional issues. However, inconsistencies are common in the use of technical terms in healthcare (Cimino et al 1994, Schulz et al 2001). Several factors promote such inconsistencies. Healthcare professions identify new diagnoses, develop new techniques, and generate new paradigms to understand disease and dysfunction, but these advances are not collated or disseminated globally in a co-ordinated way. In their practice, clinicians may generate descriptors for conditions and interventions among their local peers, but these descriptors may not be widely accepted.

We are grateful to Dr R Kellner for statistical


We are grateful to Dr. R. Kellner for statistical

advice. The study was part of the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft PROFIL “Mucosal Nano-Vaccine Against Influenza”. “
“Oncogenic strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cervical cancer [1]; and two particular strains, HPV16 or HPV18, have been identified in over 70% of cervical cancers [2]. The AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®; GlaxoSmithKline [GSK] Biologicals SA) is a prophylatic vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer and contains recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs1) assembled from the L1 major capsid proteins of HPV16 and HPV18. The HPV-16/18 vaccine has demonstrated very high efficacy against persistent infections and high-grade lesions associated with HPV-16/18 as well as cross-protective efficacy against other oncogenic HPV such as HPV31 and 45 [3] and [4]. Overall, the vaccine efficacy against cervical INCB024360 research buy intraepithelial neoplasias

graded 3 or greater in a cohort of HPV DNA-negative women has been estimated at 93.2% (95% CI 78.9–98.7), irrespective of HPV type [3]. Since the preferred age range for HPV-16/18 vaccination (9–14 years) is younger than the age range in which efficacy high throughput screening is typically assessed (beyond 16 years), measurement of the concentration and quality of antibody responses in this population is crucial [5] and [6]. Antibodies are thought to play a role in preventing HPV infection of genital mucosa, even though a correlate of protection has yet to be identified [7] and [8]. Typical methods for assessing antigen-specific antibody responses include ELISAs of cervical secretions as well as serum, pseudovirion-based neutralisation assays, all and measuring the frequencies of memory B cells [9], [10] and [11]. The avidity ELISA is another measure of the antibody response. Increased antibody avidity for antigens reflects the process of affinity maturation of B cells in the germinal centres

that in the presence of follicular helper T cells (TFH) progressively produce antibodies with higher affinity via somatic hypermutation events and develop into B memory cells or plasma cells [12], [13] and [14]. Higher avidities of influenza haemagglutinin (HA1)-specific antibodies have been correlated with higher neutralisation titres after a A(H5N1) influenza vaccination schedule where prime and boost injections were 12–24 weeks apart [15]. Similarly, higher antibody avidities have been associated with higher bactericidal activities in the assessment of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines [16] and [17] and Streptococcus pneumoniae type 6B and 23F vaccines [18]. In a recent study of women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 vaccine, relatively higher levels of HPV16 L1-specific antibodies and avidities were associated with the prevention of HPV31 infection of the cervix [19].

However, oseltamivir-resistant

viruses have been associat

However, oseltamivir-resistant

viruses have been associated with antiviral treatment and poor clinical GSI-IX in vitro outcome [6] and [7]. The exceptional adaptive ability of the virus and the lack of human pre-immunity and of available vaccines underline the necessity of rapid measures to be taken and research on the development on human H7 vaccines is underway [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13] and [14]. Here, we assess the efficacy of a single low vaccine dose of influenza A H7 virus-like particles (VLPs) of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) virus origin to protect against a stringent viral challenge in the mouse model. Two-component influenza virus-like particles, containing HAs from the first H7N9 virus isolates (A/Anhui/1/13 or A/Shanghai/1/13, respectively) and the

matrix protein (M1) from A/Udorn/307/1972, Ibrutinib research buy were produced in the Trichoplusia ni insect cell line High Five (BTI-TN-5B1-4) using the baculovirus expression system. Previous studies conclusively demonstrated the potent immune stimulating properties of live baculovirus in vaccine preparations [15] and [16]. Hence, in order to keep the by-product in the vaccine formulation, we concentrated the VLPs and residual baculovirus from the culture supernatant by one-step sucrose-cushion purification. Mice received one VLP vaccine dose containing different amounts of HA (3 μg, 0.3 μg and 0.03 μg) and 5 weeks later were challenged with a stringent viral dose (100 mLD50) of the A/Shanghai/1/13 H7N9 strain. Pre-challenge serum was evaluated for the breadth of reactivity and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) activity of the elicited humoral response to divergent H7 HAs, as well as representatives of all group 2 HA subtypes. Even the lowest tested vaccine doses conferred full protection against the stringent viral challenge. In addition, a single vaccination with the H7 VLP vaccine induced serum antibodies that

were broadly reactive and HI active against divergent H7 subtyped viruses. We also detected sero-reactivity to heterosubtypic members of the group 2 HAs, such as H15 and H3. Sf9 insect cells (ATCC # CRL-1711) were routinely propagated at 27 °C in TNM-FH medium (Gemini Bio-Products, West Sacramento, CA) supplemented with 0.1% (v/v) Pluronic 68 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO), 10% (v/v) foetal bovine serum (FBS) (Atlanta Biologicals, Norcross, GA) Oxalosuccinic acid and Penicillin–Streptomycin antibiotic mixture (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA). For baculovirus amplification, the medium was switched to 3% (v/v) FBS. BTI-TN-5B1-4 (High Five – Vienna Institute of Biotechnology subclone) [17] cells were used for expression of VLPs and maintained at 27 °C in custom modified serum-free IPL-41 medium (PAN-Biotech GmbH, Aidenbach, Germany) at 27 °C as described in [18] supplemented with Penicillin–Streptomycin antibiotic mixture. Recombinant influenza viruses were generated by reverse genetics as described before [19], [20] and [21].

Stimulation of Caco-2 cells with recombinant lactobacilli or puri

Stimulation of Caco-2 cells with recombinant lactobacilli or purified flagellin induced the release of IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 2). Because bacterial cells were not inactivated but lyophilized once, antibiotics were included in the culture, and the incubation time was relatively short, and growth of bacterial cells was not observed during this assay. The relatively high levels of IL-8 were detected only in the culture exposed to agents including FliC. Despite

Caco-2 cells being stimulated with the same amount of bacterial cells, LCF induced much less IL-8 production than LCFS or LCSF. In particular, the amount of IL-8 evoked by 1000 μg/ml LCF was almost same as that by 100 μg/ml LCFS or LCSF. These concentrations of LCF, LCFS, and LCSF, exhibited nearly equal activity in IL-8 induction as 10 ng/ml of purified flagellin. The specific IgG titers against cSipC and FliC were measured High Content Screening by ELISA, as shown in Fig. 3. cSipC-specific IgG was produced by mice immunized with LCS, LCSF, LCFS,

purified cSipC, and a mixture of purified cSipC and flagellin. The flagellin-specific IgG was detected in sera from mice that received LCF, LCSF, LCFS, or the mixture of purified cSipC and flagellin. No significant difference was shown for NVP-BKM120 research buy cSipC-specific IgG titer between the groups immunized with cSipC-producing lactobacilli (LCS, these LCSF, and LCFS). On the other hand, the flagellin-specific IgG titers of the LCF- or LCFS-immunization groups were significantly higher than that of the LCSF-immunization group. Immunization with purified soluble antigens without adjuvant also evoked specific IgG. In addition, the titer of cSipC-specific IgG induced by inoculation with a mixture of cSipC and flagellin was higher than that of cSipC only. SE antigen-specific IgG was not detected from the immunized groups of LCN and PBS. In order to determine the IgG1/2a ratio, which represents the Th2/Th1 response, the same ELISA but using anti-IgG1 and anti-IgG2a antibodies for detection was

performed. For both anti-cSipC and anti-FliC IgG1/2a ratios, the groups immunized with soluble antigens showed greater values than the groups that received antigens exposed on the bacterial surface (Table 2). No significant difference was observed between the groups immunized with soluble antigens or between groups that received recombinant lactobacilli expressing SE antigens. Eight kinds of cytokine in spleen cell cultures, which were stimulated with SE antigens, were measured using a Bio-Plex suspension array system. Stimulation with ConA induced non-specific proliferation of splenocytes and the production of high levels of various cytokine, while poor cell-proliferation and cytokine production were observed in spleen cells incubated with PBS (data not shown).