These genes had already been reported to be differentially expres

These genes had already been reported to be differentially expressed by peritoneal

macrophages infected with P. brasiliensis [24]. In our experiments, trl2, cd14, Il-1β, nfkb, and tnf-α genes, which play an Pifithrin-�� ic50 important role in the host innate response, were down-regulated during P. brasiliensis-MH-S cell interaction in the presence of pulmonary surfactant or alexidine dihydrochloride compared to the control (Figure 3). In contrast, the main up-regulated genes were those encoding the membrane-related protein CLEC 2 (clec2) – a mannose-type receptor, important for more effective phagocytic capacity [27] – and the pro-inflammatory inhibitor (nkrf), presenting fold-changes of 8.0 and 9.8 respectively, in cultures exposed to the pulmonary surfactant Oligomycin A solubility dmso (Figure 3). Figure 3 Real-Time RT-PCR. Analysis of the transcript

level of macrophage genes related to phagocytosis (clec2, trl2, and cd14) and inflammation (nkrf, nfkb, tnf-α, and il-1β). The Selleckchem GDC0449 assay was carried out in triplicate (mean ± SEM, with *significance assumed in the range of P < 0:05); **Significantly different from controls: P < 0.001 by the paired 2-tailed Student's t-test. NFkB is a key transcription factor involved in TLR-mediated Liothyronine Sodium innate immunity and together with its repressor Nkrf is an important regulator of the inflammatory process, a powerful protective mechanism coordinated and controlled by cytokines and chemokines. Our data showed an up-regulation of the nkrf gene in the presence of the pulmonary surfactant, suggesting a possible modulation of the

innate immune response under conditions of increased PLB activity. Cytokine production by MH-S cells during host-pathogen interaction In order to verify the pattern of MH-S cell activation, the levels of the cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined. When compared to the control, the MH-S cells treated with alexidine produced higher levels of IL-12 and TNF-α and lower levels of IL-10. However, no significant difference between the control group and the group treated with surfactant was observed (Figure 4). Figure 4 Amount of cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-α released by alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The assay was carried out in triplicate (mean ± SEM); ns = non-significantly and *significantly different from controls: P < 0.05 by the paired 2-tailed Student’s t-test.

The cells were then incubated with chemotherapeutic agents in ser

The cells were then incubated with chemotherapeutic agents in serum free medium for additional

24 hr (Doxo) or 48 hr (5-FU and Gem), since it was the optimal incubation time for each drug. NQO1 enzyme activity assay NQO1 Thiazovivin assay was performed according to the method described previously [20]. Cells were seeded at 7.5 × 103 cells/well in flat-bottomed 96-well cultured plates overnight. After cells were cultured for the designated time, cells were lysed with 50 μL solution containing 0.8% digitonin and agitated on a shaker at room temperature for 10 min. Twenty-five microliter of 0.55% dicoumarol was added into culture wells designated as baseline activity, while the corresponding paired wells were added with distilled water (DW) designated as the test activity wells. After that, all wells were added with 200 μL of reaction mixture (the following

stock solution was prepared for each set of assay: 7.5 mL of 0.5 M Tris–HCl (pH 7.4), 100 mg of bovine serum albumin (BSA), 1 mL of 1.5% Tween-20 solution, 0.1 mL of 7.5 mM FAD, 1 mL of 150 mM glucose-6-phosphate, 100 μL of Pinometostat supplier 50 mM β-NADP, 275 unit of yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 45 mg of MTT, and DW to a final volume of 150 mL and menadione (1 μL of 50 mM menadione dissolved in acetonitrile per milliliter of reaction mixture) was added just before the mixture is dispensed into the microtiter plates. A blue color developed and the plates were placed into a microplate reader with filter wavelength of 620 nm and readings were made at 0.5 min interval for about 10 min. The rate of increase of the optical readings with times represents the activity of the reaction. Using the extinction coefficient of MTT formazan of 11,300 M-1 cm-1 at 610 nm and correction for the light

path of the microplate, NQO1 activity was expressed as nmol/min/mg protein. Cytotoxicity or SRB assay Cytotoxicity testing is used to evaluate the effects of chemotherapeutic agents. In brief, CCA cells were seeded onto 96-well cultured plates at a density of 7.5 × 103 cells/well overnight, then media was renewed with fresh media Thymidine kinase containing test Hedgehog antagonist compound and further incubated for the indicated times. Assay was performed at the endpoint of treatment to determine amount of protein remaining in each well. Media was discarded and replaced with 100 μL of ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and placed in 4°C for at least 1 hr. Then TCA was removed and wells were carefully rinsed with deionized (DI) water for 5 times. After 10 min of air drying, 50 μL of 0.4% sulforhodamine B (SRB) in 1% acetic acid was added for 30 min. Cells were rinsed 3–4 times with 1% acetic acid and air dried for 1 hr at room temperature. Finally, adhered cells were solubilized with 200 μL of 10 mM Tris base and plates were shaken for 20 min before absorbance reading with a microplate reader with filter wavelength of 540 nm.

The Journal of infectious diseases 2008,197(11):1523–1530 PubMedC

The Journal of infectious diseases 2008,197(11):1523–1530.PubMedCrossRef Selleck GDC0068 43. Diep

BA, Gill SR, Chang RF, Phan TH, Chen JH, Davidson MG, Lin F, Lin J, Carleton HA, Mongodin EF, et al.: Complete genome sequence of USA300, an epidemic clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 2006,367(9512):731–739.PubMedCrossRef 44. Miragaia M, de Lencastre H, Perdreau-Remington F, Chambers HF, Higashi J, Sullam PM, Lin J, Wong KI, King KA, Otto M, et al.: Genetic diversity of arginine catabolic mobile element in Staphylococcus epidermidis. PloS one 2009,4(11):e7722..PubMedCrossRef 45. Sugawara K, Yoshizawa Y, Tzeng S, Epstein WL, Fukuyama K: Colorimetric determination of citrulline residues in proteins. Analytical biochemistry 1998,265(1):92–96.PubMedCrossRef 46. Zhu Y, Weiss EC, Otto M, Fey PD, Smeltzer MS, Somerville GA: Staphylococcus

aureus biofilm metabolism and the influence of arginine on polysaccharide intercellular adhesin synthesis, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis. Infection and immunity 2007,75(9):4219–4226.PubMedCrossRef 47. Vuong C, Kidder JB, Jacobson ER, Otto M, Proctor RA, Somerville GA: Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin production significantly increases during tricarboxylic acid cycle stress. Journal of bacteriology 2005,187(9):2967–2973.PubMedCrossRef 48. Cramton SE, Ulrich M, Gotz F, Doring G: Anaerobic conditions induce expression of polysaccharide CB-839 datasheet intercellular adhesin in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infection and immunity 2001,69(6):4079–4085.PubMedCrossRef 49. KPT-330 Bruckner R: Gene replacement in Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus. FEMS microbiology letters 1997,151(1):1–8.PubMedCrossRef 50. Charpentier E, Anton AI, Barry P, Alfonso B, Fang Y, Novick RP: Novel cassette-based shuttle vector system for gram-positive

bacteria. Applied and environmental N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase microbiology 2004,70(10):6076–6085.PubMedCrossRef 51. Heilmann C, Hussain M, Peters G, Gotz F: Evidence for autolysin-mediated primary attachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis to a polystyrene surface. Molecular microbiology 1997,24(5):1013–1024.PubMedCrossRef 52. Christensen GD, Simpson WA, Younger JJ, Baddour LM, Barrett FF, Melton DM, Beachey EH: Adherence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to plastic tissue culture plates: a quantitative model for the adherence of staphylococci to medical devices. Journal of clinical microbiology 1985,22(6):996–1006.PubMed 53. Gross KC, Houghton MP, Senterfit LB: Presumptive speciation of Streptococcus bovis and other group D streptococci from human sources by using arginine and pyruvate tests. Journal of clinical microbiology 1975,1(1):54–60.PubMed 54.

This suggests the benefit of adding bedside standardized ultrason

This suggests the benefit of adding bedside standardized ultrasonography in the first-line diagnostic management of suspected gynecologic emergencies. One of the strengths of our study is that TVUS findings are recorded routinely at our institution using a standardized protocol [11]. This standardized protocol, with a routine recording of standardized images, allows a reviewing of those scans, even a long time after. Recording pictures in the

patient’s chart may also decrease the need for subsequent repeat Dibutyryl-cAMP mouse ultrasonography, thereby saving time and diminishing healthcare costs. Furthermore, we did not have to rely on a written description of the TVUS findings in the medical record. The TVUS findings were determined by blinded observers using objective criteria. These selleck chemicals criteria are reliable and have been proven useful for diagnosing

specific gynecologic emergencies [9, 10, 13, 15, 21]. It has been demonstrated that the availability of TVUS at the initial assessment of both pregnant and nonpregnant women decreased patient time management, unnecessary admissions, outpatient follow-up examinations and also modified treatment decisions [22, 23]. Nonetheless, we did not find any published study showing clear-cut evidence that routine ultrasonography decreases unfavorable patient outcomes. We demonstrate that including around-the-clock TVUS as a first step investigation in addition to the physical examination is an effective strategy to rule out surgical emergencies at the gynecologic ED by reducing the risk of diagnostic errors. In France, there is at

least one resident to on duty around the clock with unlimited access to TVUS in gynecological EDs, even when no radiologist or board-certified obstetrician/gynecologist is available. Another particularity in France is that ultrasonography for gynecologic emergencies are under the supervision of board-certified obstetricians/gynecologists instead of radiologists. In contrast, in most of the developed countries, emergency ultrasonography is performed at the request of ED physicians by radiologists or board-certified obstetricians/gynecologists [22, 23]. Although, this strategy optimizes the quality of ultrasound examination, our results suggest that suspecting surgical emergencies based on the physical examination alone does not perform well for the diagnosis of gynecologic emergencies. Instead, the French strategy of first-line ultrasonography performed by non-specialized healthcare providers Selleck Cisplatin should be compared with the so-called “limited” sonogram in the 2nd/3rd trimester of pregnancy. These examinations do not replace a standard complete ultrasound examination but are performed to obtain an immediate answer to a specific clinical question [24], as FAST scanning in EDs.

Res Microbiol 1991, 142:541–549 PubMedCrossRef 26 Huff WE, Huff

Res Bucladesine manufacturer Microbiol 1991, 142:541–549.PubMedCrossRef 26. Huff WE, Huff GR, Rath NC, Balog JM, Donoghue AM: Bacteriophage treatment of a severe Escherichia coli respiratory infection in broiler chickens. Avian Dis 2003, 47:1399–1405.PubMedCrossRef 27. Khakhria Selleckchem Dasatinib R, Lior H: Extended phage-typing scheme for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Epidemiol Infect 1992, 108:403–414.PubMedCrossRef 28. Salama S, Bolton FJ, Hutchinson DN: Improved method for the isolation of Campylobacter

jejuni and Campylobacter coli bacteriophages. Lett Appl Microbiol 1989, 8:5–7.CrossRef 29. Connerton PL, Loc Carrillo CM, Swift C, Dillon E, Scott A, Rees CE, Dodd CE, Frost J, Connerton IF: Longitudinal study of Campylobacter

jejuni bacteriophages and their hosts from broiler chickens. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004, 70:3877–3883.PubMedCrossRef 30. Grajewski BA, Kusek JW, Gelfand HM: Development of a bacteriophage typing system for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J Clin Microbiol 1985, 22:13–18.PubMed 31. VX-809 Atterbury RJ, Connerton PL, Dodd CE, Rees CE, Connerton IF: Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter bacteriophages from retail poultry. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003, 69:4511–4518.PubMedCrossRef 32. Atterbury RJ, Dillon E, Swift C, Connerton PL, Frost JA, Dodd CE, Rees CE, Connerton IF: Correlation of Campylobacter bacteriophage with reduced presence of hosts in broiler chicken ceca. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005, 71:4885–4887.PubMedCrossRef 33. El-Shibiny A, Scott A, Timms A, Metawea Y, Connerton P, Connerton I: Application of a group II Campylobacter bacteriophage to reduce strains

of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter PFKL coli colonizing broiler chickens. J Food Prot 2009, 72:733–740.PubMed 34. Loc Carrillo CM, Connerton PL, Pearson T, Connerton IF: Free-range layer chickens as a source of Campylobacter bacteriophage. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2007, 92:275–284.PubMedCrossRef 35. Carvalho C, Susano M, Fernandes E, Santos S, Gannon B, Nicolau A, Gibbs P, Teixeira P, Azeredo J: Method for bacteriophage isolation against target Campylobacter strains. Lett Appl Microbiol 2009, 50:192–197.PubMedCrossRef 36. Atterbury RJ, Connerton PL, Dodd CE, Rees CE, Connerton IF: Application of host-specific bacteriophages to the surface of chicken skin leads to a reduction in recovery of Campylobacter jejuni. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003, 69:6302–6306.PubMedCrossRef 37. Lavigne R, Darius P, Summer E, Seto D, Mahadevan P, Nilsson A, Ackermann H, Kropinski A: Classification of Myoviridae bacteriophages using protein sequence similarity. BMC Microbiol 2009, 9:224.PubMedCrossRef 38. Rosenquist H, Sommer HM, Nielsen NL, Christensen BB: The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter. Int J Food Microbiol 2006, 108:226–232.PubMedCrossRef 39.

The MTT viability assay showed that HU 100-V decreased the viabil

The MTT viability assay showed that HU 100-V decreased the viability of most of the cell lines tested in a time- and dose-dependent manner for which they are achieved good values of IC50 (concentration inhibiting 50% of growth). Especially, prostate cancer DU-145, pancreas cancer BX-PC3 [26, 27], renal cancer RXF393 and glioblastoma cancer LN229 cells have OSI-906 purchase proved to be the most

sensitive to this treatment, with IC50 values of less than 20 micromolar (Table 3 and Figure 2). Figure 2 Dose–response curves from the treatment of different cell lines with the molecule HU-100-V with an IC50 between click here more less than 20 μM. Apoptotic cell death To ascertain whether loss of cell viability was mediated by effects on apoptosis we directly analyzed the effects of either V or HU-331 on apoptosis of M14 cells by using PI-staining of DNA fragmentation after cell permeabilization. Cells were treated with different concentrations (1–10 μM) of V and HU-331 for 24 and 72 hours and then the population of sub-G1 cells (hyplodiploid nuclei) was determined. Compound V induced apoptosis of M14 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with 40% of cell death at 10 μM after 72 h, whereas a small pro-apoptotic effect was observed with 10 μM HU-331 (Figure 3). These results showed that the cytotoxic effect Epigenetics inhibitor of V is dependent

by an apoptotic mechanism that is more significant than HU-331 effect on M14 cells. Figure 3 Effects of HU compounds on apoptosis of human melanoma

M14 cells. Analysis of the % of apoptotic cells was performed using PI cell permeabilization staining. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase M14 cells were treated with different concentrations of HU-331 and V (1–10 μM) for 24–72 h. Cells were then collected and % of hypodiploid nuclei was analyzed by flow cytometry (*** P < 0.001 vs 72 h control cells; ° P < 0.05, °°° P < 0.001 vs 24 h control cells). Results are expressed as mean ± SEM of three experiments performed in triplicate. Caspases involvement To investigate the involvement of caspases in the mechanism of apoptosis induced by compounds, we pretreated the cells with a pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk for 30 min before to add V and HU-331. Results in Figure 4 show that apoptosis induced by V in presence of the inhibitor was significantly reduced indicating the involvement of caspases in the apoptotic mechanism in M14 cells. Figure 4 Effects of the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK on apoptosis induced by HU331 and V in human melanoma M14 cells. Z-VAD-FMK (30 μM) was administered 30 min before incubation with HU-331 and V (10 μM) for 72 h and the % of apoptotic cell was evaluated by flow cytometry (mean ± SEM of three experiment performed in triplicate; ***P < 0.001 vs control cells, §§§ P < 0.001 HU331 vs V treated cells. Cell cycle analyses The cell cycle is divided into four phases, i.e. sub-G1, G1, S and G2.

The plates were then incubated overnight at 28°C, and AHL is indi

The plates were then incubated overnight at 28°C, and AHL is indicated by the presence of a blue spot. Western blotting analysis Bacterial cultures were grown in NYG medium overnight and inoculated in the same medium. The refreshed cultures were grown at 37°C to an OD600 of 4.5; and 1 ml of each bacterial culture was collected and centrifuged. The cells were lysed by adding 250 μl celLyticTM B cell Lysis Reagent (Sigma). The concentrations of total protein samples were measured and normalized. Then the samples were KPT-8602 denatured by boiling for 10 min and separated by 10% SDS-PAGE. Western blot analysis was performed following

the standard protocols [39]. Acknowledgements The funding for this work was provided by the Biomedical Research Council, the Agency of Science, Technology and Research (A*Star), Singapore. Electronic supplementary material

Additional file 1: Figure S1: Mutation of BCAM0227 does not affect cepI expression level. (DOC 26 KB) Additional file 2: Figure S2: Complementation of rpfR with RpfR, RpfRAAL and RpfRGGAAF. (DOC 28 KB) Additional file 3: Figure S3: Cumulative effect of BDSF and AHL systems in regulation of bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and protease production. (DOC 62 KB) Additional file 4: Table S1: Primers used in this study. (DOC 28 KB) References 1. selleck kinase inhibitor Federle MJ, Bassler BL: Interspecies communication in bacteria. J Clin Invest 2003, 112:1291–1299.PubMed 2. Whitehead NA, Barnard AM, Slater H, Simpson NJ, Salmond GP: Quorum-sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2001, 25:365–404.PubMedCrossRef

3. Deng Y, Wu J, Tao F, Zhang LH: Listening to a new language: DSF-based quorum sensing in gram-negative. Chem Rev 2011, 111:160–173.PubMedCrossRef 4. Fuqua C, Greenberg EP: Listening Rucaparib price in on bacteria: acyl-homoserine lactone signalling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2002, 3:685–695.PubMedCrossRef 5. Zhang LH, Dong YH: Quorum sensing and signal interference: diverse implications. Mol Microbiol 2004, 53:1563–1571.PubMedCrossRef 6. Williams P: Quorum sensing, communication and cross-kingdom signalling in the bacterial world. Microbiology 2007, 153:3923–3938.PubMedCrossRef 7. Deng Y, Wu J, Eberl L, Zhang LH: Structural and functional characterization of diffusible signal factor family quorum-sensing signals produced by members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010, 76:4675–4683.PubMedCrossRef 8. Eberl L: Quorum sensing in the genus Burkholderia . Int J Med Microbiol 2006, 296:103–110.PubMedCrossRef 9. Sokol PA, Malott RJ, Riedel K, Eberl L: Communication systems in the genus Burkholderia: global regulators and targets for novel antipathogenic drugs. Future Microbiol 2007, 2:555–563.PubMedCrossRef 10. Gotschlich A, Huber B, Geisenberger O, Togl A, Steidle A, Riedel K, Hill P, Tummler B, Vandamme P, Middleton B, Camara M, Williams P, Hardman A, Eberl L: Synthesis of multiple N-acylhomoserine lactones is wide-spread among the members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

The TLC solvent system is indicated Ori, origin; SF, solvent fro

The TLC solvent system is indicated. Ori, origin; SF, solvent front. The presence of GPLs was probed for in lipid samples from Ms WT + pCP0, Ms ΔgplH + pCP0, and Ms ΔgplH + pCP0-gplH (complemented strain) by GC-MS analysis as well. The pCP0-bearing strains, Ms WT + pCP0 and Ms ΔgplH + pCP0, rather than their check details respective plasmid-free parental strains, were used in these experiments so that the WT, the mutant, and the complemented strain could all be cultured under identical conditions (i.e., kanamycin-containing

growth medium) for comparative analysis by GC-MS. Representative results from the GC-MS analysis are selleckchem shown in Figure 6. This analysis probed for the presence of the alditol acetate derivatives of the characteristic glycosyl residues of Ms GPLs as a fingerprint indicator of the presence of GPLs in the lipid samples analyzed [47]. The GC-MS analysis of samples from Ms WT + pCP0 revealed the expected m/z peak array consistent with the characteristic presence of alditol acetate derivatives of the 2,3,4-trimethyl-rhamnose, 3,4-dimethyl-rhamnose and 6-deoxy-talose components of GPLs [7, 8, 47]. Conversely, these alditol acetate derivatives were not detected

by GC-MS analysis of samples from Ms ΔgplH + pCP0. The samples from the complemented strain, Ms ΔgplH + pCP0-gplH, displayed an m/z peak array comparable to that of Ms WT + pCP0 and consistent with the presence of the alditol acetate derivatives

originating from OSI-906 manufacturer GPLs (not shown). Overall, the results of the GC-MS analysis and the results of the TLC analysis are in agreement with each other and, coupled with our genetic complementation-controlled analysis, conclusively demonstrate that gplH is essential for production of GPLs. Figure 6 GC-MS analysis of alditol acetate derivatives of the glycosyl residues of GPLs. (A) Total ion count chromatographs displaying the presence or absence of alditol acetates in extracted lipid samples from the strains indicated. (B) Mass spectra showing fragmentation pattern fingerprints RVX-208 demonstrating alditol acetate identity in peaks labeled 2,3,4-trimethyl- rhamnose (1), 3,4-dimethyl-rhamnose (2), and 6-deoxy-talose (3) from Ms WT + pCP0. Equivalent spectra were observed for the samples of Ms ΔgplH + pCP0-gplH (not shown). The selective ion monitoring MS analysis of the mutant strain Ms ΔgplH revealed that the strain lacks the alditol acetate derivatives. For illustration clarity, only the m/z values of selected diagnostic molecular ions are indicated in the spectra. These molecular ions arise from the fragmentation patterns of the corresponding alditol acetates as displayed next to each spectrum.

The Asian and African distribution of T cingulata versus Europe

The Asian and African distribution of T. cingulata versus Europe for T. ljubarskyi; the thickness of the basidiomes: 2–10 mm. for T. cingulata versus 30 mm. for T. ljubarskyi; the pore pattern

and dissepiments: round and regular, 4–6 per mm., fairly thick dissepiments for T. cingulata versus circular to angular, 3–4 per mm., thin dissepiments for T. LOXO-101 in vitro ljubarskyi and strikingly different upper surface: check details frequently concentrically sulcate and whitish to ochraceous becoming sooty black spreading from the base for T. cingulata versus azonate and whitish to ochraceous becoming pale grayish brown in spots for T. ljubarskyi. Furthermore, according to our own observations, basidiomes of T. ljubarskyi are paler than those of the isotype of T. cingulata which

is rather red brown. Nevertheless these 2 species share several common features: somewhat broadly ellipsoid basidiospores (a very unusual character in this group) with similar sizes strictly pored hymenial surface remaining so during development of the basidiomes and glabrous and somewhat glossy upper surface. ‘Lenzites’ warnieri As mentioned above, ‘Lenzites’ warnieri creates a unique branch according to the topology of the Bayesian tree. This unresolved phylogenetic position is reflected in the fact that the species possesses many morphological features from other genera, and this ultimately would place L. warnieri in a separate genus. This Mediterranean Torin 1 purchase species is always glabrous and dull, with strictly lamellate hymenial surface (character in common with T. betulina), without parietal crystals on the hyphae (Artolenzites, Leiotrametes). L. warnieri shows superficial skeletal hyphae filled with a brown resinous content not accumulating at the apex (Fig. 4e) and its abhymenial surface turns deep brown with 5% KOH. These 2 features also characterize species of the genus Leiotrametes.

This supports one of the striking points emphasized in this study: there is no correlation at all between type of hymenial surface and Ergoloid phylogenetic position of a species within the Trametes-group. The lamellate Lenzites warnieri, Artolenzites elegans and T. betulina are not monophyletic and show no close relationship. Lenzites is therefore discarded. Unfortunately, because of the absence or very weak development of the hymenium in most of our specimens, we cannot rule about the taxonomic significance of the hymenial sword-like pseudo-cystidia previously mentioned for T. betulina, T. gibbosa and L. warnieri (Ryvarden and Gilbertson 1993; Tomšovský et al. 2006). For the same reason, the basidiospores could not be properly analyzed in these species. Nevertheless, while Pieri and Rivoire (2007) revealed that pseudocystidia were not found in T.

, Tokyo, Japan) Before observation, the samples were deposited b

, Tokyo, Japan). Before observation, the samples were deposited between two plastic sheets in an epoxy resin, and ultra-thin slices were obtained using an ultra-microtome. Catalytic properties evaluation The catalytic performance of nanocomposites was evaluated by using the reduction of 4-np to 4-ap by NaBH4 as a model reaction, which was considered to follow a pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the apparent rate constant (k app) was calculated. In a typical run, a piece of nanocomposite (1 cm2 for textile fibers and 1 cm3 for PUFs) was added to a vessel of 50 ml solution containing 4-np (0.5 mM) and NaBH4 (500 mM). The process was monitored at 390 check details nm by a PLK inhibitor Pharmacia LKB Novaspec II spectrometer (Biochrom

Ltd., Cambridge, UK). Results and discussion Characterization of the polyurethane foams and their pretreatments PUF resulted to be a very stable material. The FTIR-ATR spectra of PUFs (Figure 2) show the distinctive polyurethrane (PU) bands [17]: the broad peak at 3,270 cm−1 is characteristic of the υ(N-H), the peaks at 1,690 and 1,520 cm−1 are typical for υ(C=O) (urethane band) and δ(NH)

with υ(CO-N) (amide II). Surprisingly, no differences between spectra were observed. Thus, no chemical modification took place after any pretreatment. In addition, as seen in Table 1, similar values of IEC were obtained in all the cases, which also pointed out that a basic or acid pretreatment did not significantly affect the presence of ion-exchangeable positions. Figure 2 FTIR-ATR of PUFs before and after pretreatments.

Table 1 PUF IEC values   IEC (meq/g) Treatment Acid groups EX527 Basic groups Blank 0.65 0.62 NaOH 1M 0.32 0.61 NaOH 3M 0.57 0.61 HNO3 1M 0.66 0.71 HNO3 3M 0.61 0.57 IEC, ion exchange capacity. Uncertainty in all of the cases was <1%. Nanocomposites characterization After applying the IMS technique, a darkening of the matrices was observed, indicative of the metal loading. The color for modified PUFs was similar, but clear differences in color intensity were detected for textile fibers: the higher the temperature, the darker the color. For PUFs, the metal content did not increase after pretreatments. On the one hand, a basic pretreatment allowed loading of metal in a similar way compared to untreated foams, whereas acid treatments resulted in a lower metal concentration (Figure 3). A priori, both treatments were expected to increase the total metal loading due to the formation of ionogenic groups. However, since no new ionogenic groups were generated (as concluded from the FTIR-ATR and from the IEC values), the loading of the Ag+ can be attributed to coordination with lone electron pairs of nitrogen atoms. Accordingly, the acid/basic treatments just ‘tune’ the possibility of coordination bonds to happen (depending on the isoelectric point of the matrix). Figure 3 Results of the ICP-MS analysis of the Ag content in (a) PUFs and (b) PAN and PA fibers.