RESULTS: No periprocedural complications or adverse events du

\n\nRESULTS: No periprocedural complications or adverse events during follow-up were observed. Seven patients received complete ablation and two patients only partial ablation. Five patients responded to the treatment with a reduction in day-time 24-hour ambulatory BP from 158/94 +/- 13/9 mmHg to 139/82 +/- 10/8 mmHg (p < 0.05) at the one month follow-up and a reduction in the number of antihypertensive drugs from 5.4 +/- 1.6 to 3.4 +/- 0.9 (p < 0.05). BP in the remaining four patients was not significantly changed and antihypertensive therapy was not changed.\n\nCONCLUSION: Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation is a feasible and in several cases also effective treatment option

for patients with resistant hypertension. Adequately designed controlled trials learn more are needed to assess the long-term safety and the full potential of this treatment.”
“It is desirable that polymers used for the

fabrication of prosthetic implants promote biological functions Such as Cellular adhesion, differentiation and viability In this study, We have used plasma immersion ion implantation (Pill) to modify the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), thereby 432 modulating the binding mechanism of collagen The amount of collagen bound to the polymer surface following PIII-treatment was similar to that bound by non-covalent physisorption In a manner consistent with previous enzyme and tropoelastin binding data, the collagen bound to the Pill-treated click here PTFE Surface was resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SIDS) elution whilst collagen

bound to the untreated surface was fully removed. This demonstrates the capability of PIII-treated small molecule library screening surfaces to covalently attach collagen without employing chemical linking molecules Only the collagen bound to the PIII-treated PTFE Surface supported human dermal fibroblast attachment and spreading This indicates that collagen on the PIII-treated surface possesses increased adhesive activity as compared to that on the untreated Surface Cell adhesion was inhibited by EDTA when the collagen was bound to Pill-treated PTFE, as expected for integrin involvement Additionally this adhesion was sensitive to the conformation of the bound collagen. Increased actin cytoskeletal assembly was observed on cells spreading onto collagen-coated Pill-treated PTFE compared to the collagen-coated untreated PTFE. These data demonstrate the retention of collagen’s biological properties following its attachment to PIII-treated PTFE, Suggesting advantages for tissue engineering and prosthetic design (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver neoplasm and fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The Survival for patients with advanced HCC is extremely poor. This is largely attributed to the lack of effective screening methods, advanced stage at presentation, limited utility of surgical intervention and ineffective medical therapy.

Additionally, ex vivo studies of human brain slices from an indep

Additionally, ex vivo studies of human brain slices from an independent sample of patients who had AD were performed.\n\nSetting: Three university medical centers.\n\nPatients: Patients with mild-to-moderate AD.\n\nIntervention: Two 3 consecutive cohorts of patients received 2 to 7 infusions of intravenous gantenerumab (60 or 200 mg) or placebo every 4 weeks. Brain slices from patients who had AD were coincubated with gantenerumab at increasing concentrations and with human microglial cells.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: Percent change in the ratio of regional carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B retention in vivo and semiquantitative assessment of gantenerumab-induced

phagocytosis ex vivo.\n\nResults: Sixteen patients with end-of-treatment positron emission tomographic scans were included in the analysis. Fer-1 The mean (95% CI) percent change from baseline difference relative to placebo (n=4) in cortical brain amyloid level was -15.6% (95% CI, -42.7 to 11.6) for the 60-mg group (n=6) and -35.7% (95% CI, -63.5 to -7.9) for the 200-mg group (n=6). Two patients in the 200-mg group showed transient and focal areas of inflammation or vasogenic edema on magnetic resonance imaging scans at sites with the highest level of amyloid reduction. Gantenerumab induced phagocytosis of human amyloid in a dose-dependent manner ex vivo.\n\nConclusion: Gantenerumab treatment resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in brain

amyloid level, possibly through an effector cell-mediated mechanism of action.”
“Many patients have been characterized harboring a mutation in thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta. Surprisingly this website none has yet been identified carrying a mutation in TR alpha 1. To facilitate the identification of such patients,

several animal models with a mutant TR alpha 1 have been generated. While some phenotypic characteristics, such as an adult euthyroidism, are similar in the mutant mice, other aspects such as metabolism are quite variable. This review summarizes the most important consequences of a mutation in TR alpha 1 in mice focusing on the TR alpha 1-R384C mutation, and projects the selleck chemicals insights from the animal models to a putative phenotype of patients with a mutated TR alpha 1.”
“Background: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the value of (18)FDG PET-CT for the detection of gastric cancer recurrence after surgical resection.\n\nMethods: A systematic literature search was performed in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio for (18)FDG PET-CT. We also constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves for (18)FDG PET-CT.\n\nResults: Eight studies (500 patients) were included. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of (18)FDG PET-CT were 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.71-0.94), 0.88 (95% CI = 0.75-0.94), 17.0 (95% CI = 3.5-14.0), and 0.16 (95% CI = 0.07-0.34), respectively.

Our findings suggest that formin function in cells is tightly cou

Our findings suggest that formin function in cells is tightly coupled to the mechanical activity of other machineries.”
“Relapse induced by exposure to cues associated with drugs of abuse is a major challenge to the treatment of drug addiction. Drug seeking

can be inhibited GW4869 Apoptosis inhibitor by manipulation of the reconsolidation of drug-related memory. Sleep has been proposed to be involved in various memory processes. However, the role of sleep in drug reward memory is not clear. The present study used conditioned place preference to examine the effects of total sleep deprivation on retrieval and reconsolidation of morphine reward memory in rats. Six-hour total sleep deprivation had no effect on the retrieval of morphine reward memory. However, sleep deprivation from 0-6 h, but not 6-12 h, after re-exposure disrupted the reconsolidation of morphine reward memory. This impairment was not attributable to the formation of an aversive associative

memory between the drug-paired context and sleep deprivation. Our findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in morphine reward memory reconsolidation, and sleep deprivation may be a potential non-pharmacotherapy for the management of relapse associated with drug-related memory. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Hyaluronic 4SC-202 mw acid is a major component of many extracellular matrices and plays a central role in the homeostasis of physiology in upper and lower airways. When topically administered following endoscopic sinus surgery, hyaluronic acid may be effective in functional recovery and in the prevention of recurrence of chronic rhinosinusistis. This pilot study was aimed at evaluating the effects of nebulised

9 mg of sodium hyaluronate given for 15 days per months over 3 months in 46 patients aged >4 years who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) for rhino-sinusal remodelling. Eligible patients were randomized to receive nebulised 9 mg sodium hyaluronate nasal washes plus saline solution or 5 ml saline alone (23 patients in each group), according to an open-label, parallel group design, with blind observer assessment. Treatment was administered by means of a nasal ampoule that allows Selleckchem ACY-738 nebulisation of particles with a median aerodynamic diameter >10 micron, i.e. suitable for upper respiratory airways deposition. The efficacy variables included clinical (presence of nasal dyspnoea), endoscopical (ostium of paranasal sinuses, oedema, respiratory patency, synechiae, and appearance of nasal mucosa) and cytological (ciliary motility and presence of neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, bacteria, mycetes and bio film) measures. At the end of the study, patients expressed an opinion on the overall tolerability of treatment. The two treatment groups were comparable at baseline. Treatment with 9 mg of sodium hyaluronate was associated with significantly greater improvements compared to controls in nasal dyspnoea (p<0.

Methods We evaluated 59 asymptomatic adults consecutively for rep

Methods We evaluated 59 asymptomatic adults consecutively for repaired CoA with MR imaging between 2008 and 2012. Results Patients were aged 29 +/- 8(16-49) years; 34 males (58%) and 34 with bicuspid aortic valve (58%). Median age at the time of initial repair was two years. Surveillance MR imaging was performed 23 +/- 8 years post-procedure. The three most common interventions performed were subclavian-flap repair (25%), end-to-end repair (33%) and patch aortoplasty (33%). Re-intervention with balloon angioplasty or repeat surgery had been performed in 22%

of subjects. There were 28 cases of recoarctation (48%), of which seven were at least moderate in severity. Repair site and ascending Ro-3306 cell line aortic aneurysm occurred in eight (14%) and four (7%) subjects, respectively. Freedom SC79 order from any degree of recoarctation and other aortic complications was observed in eight subjects (14%). Conclusion MR imaging detected a high rate of aortic abnormalities in asymptomatic adults after CoA repair, including 27% with clinically

significant recoarctation and/or local aneurysm formation.”
“Phototrophic microbial mats are ideal model systems for ecological and evolutionary analysis of highly diverse microbial communities. Microbial mats are small-scale, nearly closed, and self-sustaining benthic ecosystems that comprise the major element cycles, trophic levels, and food webs. The steep and fluctuating physicochemical microgradients, that are the result of the ever changing environmental conditions and of the microorganisms’ own activities, give rise to a plethora of potential niches resulting in the formation of one of the most diverse microbial ecosystems known to date. For several decades, microbial mats have been studied extensively and more recently molecular biological techniques DAPT supplier have been introduced that allowed

assessing and investigating the diversity and functioning of these systems. These investigations also involved metagenomics analyses using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing. Here, we summarize some of the latest developments in metagenomic analysis of three representative phototrophic microbial mat types (coastal, hot spring, and hypersaline). We also present a comparison of the available metagenomic data sets from mats emphasizing the major differences between them as well as elucidating the overlap in overall community composition.”
“A series of 3 ‘-aminoflavones 5,6,7,8-tetra- or 5,7-dioxygenated on the A-ring was synthesized from tangeretin or naringin, two natural Citrus flavonoids. These flavones were evaluated for antiproliferative activity, activation of apoptosis, and inhibition of tubulin assembly. The most antiproliferative flavones exhibit a common 5-hydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy substitution pattern on the A-ring. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

The depigmenting abilities of chloroquine and quinine salicylate

The depigmenting abilities of chloroquine and quinine salicylate were assessed in a human skin equivalent model (MelanoDerm). Both compounds were considerably more effective than arbutin, a widely used lightening agent. Our results indicate

that quinolines may be useful agents for “cosmeceutical” skin lightening and treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders.”
“Apoptosis is mediated by an intracellular biochemical system that mainly includes proteins (procaspases, caspases, inhibitors, Bcl-2 protein family as well as substances released from mitochondrial intermembrane space). The dynamics of caspase activation and target cleavage in apoptosis induced by granzyme B in a single K562 cell was studied using a mathematical model of the dynamics of granzyme B-induced apoptosis developed in this work. Also the first application of optimization learn more approach to determination of unknown kinetic

constants of biochemical apoptotic reactions was presented. The optimization approach involves solving of two problems: direct and inverse. Solving the direct optimization problem, we obtain the initial (baseline) concentrations of procaspases for known kinetic constants through conditional 3-Methyladenine supplier minimization of a cost function based on the principle of minimum protein consumption by the apoptosis system. The inverse optimization problem is aimed at determination of unknown kinetic constants of apoptotic biochemical reactions proceeding from the condition that the optimal concentrations of procaspases resulting from the solution of the direct optimization problem coincide with the observed ones, that is, those determined by biochemical methods. The Multidimensional Index Method was used

to perform numerical solution of the inverse optimization problem. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Purpose: The recent technologic advances in the newer generation of C59 solubility dmso flexible ureteroscopes have significantly enhanced the therapeutic and diagnostic efficacy of ureteroscopy. The purpose of our study was to assess ureteroscopy and lithotripsy of renal calculi without a safety wire, using the ureteroscope as the safety device.\n\nPatients and Methods: Medical records for patients undergoing ureteroscopy by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed from December 2006 to December 2009. Inclusion criteria for our study included all adult patients who 3 underwent wireless flexible ureteroscopy for the management of renal calculi and had 1 month follow-up data.\n\nResults: Of the 568 patients who underwent ureteroscopy during this period, 268 patients met our study inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients undergoing wireless ureteroscopy was 33 years, and the mean body mass index was 33.1 kg/m(2). Mean stone diameter of the renal calculi treated was 12.0+/-5.9 mm.

Tetraspanins are widely expressed in vascular and haematopoietic

Tetraspanins are widely expressed in vascular and haematopoietic cells and are involved in both physiological and pathological processes related to angiogenesis, vascular injury, thrombosis, and haemostasis. A wide body of evidence suggests that tetraspanins directly regulate

the development and functions of the vascular system and the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. This article reviews current understanding of the roles of tetraspanins in vascular functions.”
“Background: ZD1839 mouse Oxytocin is known to enhance recognition of emotional expressions and may increase attention to the eye region. Therefore, we investigated whether oxytocin administration would lead to increased orienting of attention in response to gaze cues of emotional faces.\n\nMethods: In a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study 20 healthy males received 24 IU of oxytocin or placebo. Thirty-five minutes after administration they performed a gaze cueing task with happy, fearful

and neutral faces. Stress levels were measured throughout the study.\n\nResults: Oxytocin did not affect SN-38 datasheet stress levels during the study, but significantly increased gaze cueing scores for happy and fearful expressions compared to placebo. No effects were found for neutral expressions. Trait anxiety or depression did not moderate the effect.\n\nConclusions: Oxytocin increases orienting of attention in response to emotional gaze cues, both for happy and fearful expressions. Replication is needed in female and clinical populations. Effects of oxytocin on early, automatic Alvespimycin processing levels should be studied in relation to previously found pro-social and behavioral effects of oxytocin. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Relating expression signatures from different sources such as cell lines, in vitro cultures from primary cells and biopsy material is an important task in drug development and translational medicine as well as for tracking of cell fate and disease progression. Especially the comparison of large scale gene expression changes to tissue or cell type specific signatures

is of high interest for the tracking of cell fate in (trans-) differentiation experiments and for cancer research, which increasingly focuses on shared processes and the involvement of the microenvironment. These signature relation approaches require robust statistical methods to account for the high biological heterogeneity in clinical data and must cope with small sample sizes in lab experiments and common patterns of co-expression in ubiquitous cellular processes. We describe a novel method, called PhysioSpace, to position dynamics of time series data derived from cellular differentiation and disease progression in a genome-wide expression space. The PhysioSpace is defined by a compendium of publicly available gene expression signatures representing a large set of biological phenotypes.

aureus (hVISA) by population analysis profile area under the curv

aureus (hVISA) by population analysis profile area under the curve. Our results suggested that the incidence of hVISA increased rapidly when vancomycin MIC shifted from 1 to 2 mu g/mL, and at vancomycin MIC of 2 mu g/mL, the incidence of hVISA was nearly 40%. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Glycerol and oleic acid (OA) were incorporated into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) films by an emulsification method. Films containing different amounts of glycerol

and OA were examined for mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and moisture uptake, optical and thermal properties. 3 Addition of OA to the CMC films significantly improved the barrier property. However, the effect of OA on the mechanical properties was lower than glycerol. By increasing selleck chemicals llc of OA content, the cloudiness of the CMC films was intensified and Hunter value (b) of the films increased (by ca. 35.8%). (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) selleck screening library harbors elaborate quality control mechanisms to ensure proper folding and post-translational modifications of polypeptides targeted to this organelle. Once an aberrant protein is detected, it is dislocated from the ER and routed to the proteasome for destruction. Autophagy

has been recently implicated in the elevation of the ER stress response; however, the involvement of this pathway in selective removal of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates has not been demonstrated. In the present study, we show that an ER membrane lesion, associated with the accumulation of the yeast ERAD-M substrate 6Myc-Hmg2p elicits the recruitment of Atg8 and elements of the cytosol to vacuole targeting (CVT) to the membrane, leading to attenuation in the degradation process. Deletion of peptide: N-glycanase (PNG1) stabilizes this association,

a process accompanied by slowdown of 6MycHmg2p degradation. Truncation of the unstructured C-terminal 23 amino acids of 6Myc-Hmg2p rendered its degradation PNG1-independent and allowed its partial delivery to the vacuole in an autophagy-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate a new conduit for the selective vacuolar/lysosomal removal Napabucasin cost of ERAD misfolded proteins by an autophagy-related machinery acting concomitantly with the proteasome.”
“Thermosensitive gel is synthesized through controlled/”living” free radical copolymerization of styrene and DVB mediated by an alkoxyamine inimer, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-(1 ‘-phenylethoxy)-4-(4 ‘-vinyl-benzyloxy)-piperidine (V-ET). The inimer plays the role of both incorporating “T-shaped” inter-chain linkages and mediating the polymerization. First order kinetics is observed for crosslinking polymerizations before gel point, indicating a constant concentration of propagating radicals. Monomer conversion at the gel point depends on the feed ratio of DVB to V-ET.

In this regard, reports of adverse events in human newborns have

In this regard, reports of adverse events in human newborns have raised concerns about the safety of glucocorticoid treatment; synthetic glucocorticoids have detrimental effects on fetal growth and development, childhood cognition, and long-term behavioral outcomes. Experimental evidence supports a link between prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids and alterations in fetal development and changes in placental function, and many of these alterations

appear to be permanent. Because the placenta is the conduit between the maternal and fetal environments, it is likely that placental function plays a key role in mediating effects of fetal glucocorticoid exposure on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis development and long-term disease risk. Here we review recent insights into how the placenta responds to changes in the intrauterine glucocorticoid environment and discuss possible HKI-272 nmr mechanisms by which the placenta mediates fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal

development, metabolism, cardiovascular function, and reproduction.”
“During colonization of germfree mice with the total fecal microbial community of their conventionally born and raised siblings (conventionalization), the intestinal mucosal immune system initiates and maintains a balanced immune response. However, the genetic regulation of these balanced, appropriate responses to the 432 microbiota is obscure. Here, combined analysis of germfree and conventionalized mice revealed that the major molecular responses could be detected Bcl-2 phosphorylation initiating at day 4 post conventionalization, with a strong induction of innate immune functions followed by stimulation of adaptive immune responses and development and expansion of adaptive immune cells at later stages of conventionalization. This study provides a comprehensive overview of mouse Selleckchem ALK inhibitor developmental and immune-related cellular pathways and processes that were co-mediated by the commensal microbiota and suggests which mechanisms were involved in this reprogramming. The dynamic, region-dependent mucosal responses to the colonizing microbiota revealed potential

transcriptional signatures for the control of intestinal homeostasis in healthy mice, which may help to decipher the genetic basis of pathway dysregulation in human intestinal inflammatory diseases.”
“Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader.

It is an important cause of acute-on-chronic liver failure in end

It is an important cause of acute-on-chronic liver failure in endemic areas. Chronic HEV infection and progressive disease has been reported in recipients of solid organ transplants, haematological malignancies, HIV patients and those on haemodialysis. Clearance of HEV may occur after reducing immunosuppressive therapy, especially those targeting T-cells, in about one third of cases. Antiviral therapy should be considered

for patients for whom immunosuppressive therapy cannot be reduced and for those who do not achieve viral clearance after reducing immunosuppression. For the patients with severe infection, fulminant hepatic failure and acute-on-chronic infection, ribavirin monotherapy should be considered to expedite the viral clearance and recovery. Although ribavirin therapy is contra4 indicated in pregnancy owing

to teratogenicity, the risks of untreated HEV GM6001 to the mother and fetus are high and treatment may be offered. A twelve-week course of pegylated interferon, ribavirin or a combination of the two agents leads to viral clearance in about two-thirds of patients with chronic hepatitis E. Three-to twelve-month treatment with pegylated interferon clears virus in liver transplant recipients and patients on haemodialysis. In kidney and heart transplant patients where interferon may lead to organ rejection, ribavirin may be given.”
“Physiological GSK923295 cell line responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement P5091 nmr in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA

and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions.

The resultant RFP generated 23 letters of intent from industry an

The resultant RFP generated 23 letters of intent from industry and academic institutions, of which three were chosen for funding.\n\nAssessing clinical needs is a necessary first step in developing new technologies. A multi-faceted approach assures that the views of interested stakeholders LY294002 research buy are represented and can influence success.”
“Petrography, isocon analysis and singular value decomposition analysis of jadeitites and metasomatic rocks surrounding them from the Nishisonogi metamorphic rocks revealed that the metasomatic rocks developed outside the stability field of jadeite +

quartz after jadeitites had been included by a serpentinite melange in a subduction channel possibly during exhumation. The jadeitites occur at two localities, Tone

and Mie in Nagasaki City, from a serpentinite melange in the Nishisonogi metamorphic rocks. The jadeitite Selleck PLX3397 mineral assemblage is jadeite/omphacite + paragonite + phlogopite + albite + clinozoisite/epidote +/- muscovite +/- 3 analcime. Jadeite core with fine-grained quartz inclusions and the inclusion-free rim is partially replaced by albite. These jadeitites are surrounded by metasomatic zones of albitites and/or a muscovite rock. The mineral assemblage of the albitites is albite + clinozoisite/epidote +/- muscovite +/- omphacite +/- phlogopite +/- amphibole +/- chlorite, and that of the muscovite rock is muscovite + clinozoisite + chlorite. Because these zones have no high-pressure minerals, they represent products in a P-T regime outside the stability field of jadeite + quartz. Isocon analyses between the jadeitites and the metasomatic zones reveal that K2O, H2O, Sr and Ba were added to jadeitite and SiO2, Na2O and selleck compound Fe2O3 were removed. REE-rich veinlets emanate from clinozoisite grains, suggesting REE mobility during the fluid-jadeitite interactions. The metasomatic zones developed by interaction

between jadeitites and serpentinite via K-, Sr- and Ba-rich fluid, during exhumation from the stability field of jadeite + quartz through that of albite to that of analcime.”
“Different analytical techniques were used to find the most reliable and economic method for determining the labile fraction of C in biochar. Biochar was produced from pine, poplar and willow (PI, PO and WI, respectively) at two temperatures (400 and 550 degrees C) and characterised using spectroscopic techniques [solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)], molecular markers [pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS)], thermogravimetry (TG), elemental composition and wet oxidation (potassium permanganate and potassium dichromate). Short term incubation (110 h) of an A horizon from an Umbrisol amended with the biochar samples at two doses (7.5 and 15 t ha (1)) was also carried out to provide supplementary information on the influence of biochar-soil interaction on CO(2) evolution.