In univariate Cox regression analyses, age, cardiovascular diseas

In univariate Cox regression analyses, age, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, increased CAC score, increased comorbidity score and decreased hip BMD were associated with mortality. Low hip BMD remained independently associated with mortality after adjustments for cardiovascular

risk factors, comorbidity score and CAC score. Patients with BMD in the lowest tertile had the worst survival. Conclusion: Low hip BMD predicted mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients independent of CAC. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“In order to identify ginsenoside composition in native ginseng, cell, hairy root and adventitious root, the ESI-MSn analysis was performed. Rg(1), Re, Ro, Malonyl-Rb-1, Rb-1, Rc, Rb-2 and Rd were identified from ginseng tissue cultures on the basis of LC-MSn analysis. The content of total saponins in adventitious root was much higher than that in other tissue cultures. Cluster analysis AZD6094 order showed that the quality of adventitious check details root was mostly similar with native ginseng. During the 51 bioreactor culture of ginseng adventitious root, the maximum dry weight and total saponin were achieved on day 40 and 30, respectively. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) increased quickly within the first 10 days. After day 10, SOUR showed a sharp

drop and was almost zero after 20 days. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and the proliferation of splenocytes from mice in response to concanavalin A (ConA) were used to evaluate the effects of native ginseng root (NGR) and ginseng adventitious root (GAR) on cellular immune response. As the result, GAR possessed a similar cellular immuno-regulation as NGR had. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

To synthesize hybrid benzimidazolyl-chalcone derivatives, evaluate JNK-IN-8 order their anthelmintic activity, and establish some structural elements which could lead to induction and enhancement of this activity.

Methods: A series of 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-aryl-2-propen-1-one compounds (6a-z) was synthesized by condensation reaction of 2-acetylbenzimidazole with aryl and heteroaryl aldehyde derivatives. The physicochemical characterization of these benzimidazolyl-chalcones was carried out by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). All compounds were screened in vitro for their nematicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus in larval development assay. The anthelmintic activities obtained were compared with those of anthelmintic reference drugs (fenbendazole and ivermectin); 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one also used as reference for chalcone.

Results: Compounds 6a, 6g, 6w and 6y showed good nematicidal activity (LC(100)) at 0.002 and 0.0092 mu g/ml. The activity of these four benzimidazolyl-chalcones is nearly equal to that of fenbendazole.

“Twenty-five per cent of individuals infected with

“Twenty-five per cent of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are able to clear HCV spontaneously. Differences in host genetics are believed to affect the outcome of HCV infection. We analysed an exonic, a promoter and an intronic VX-661 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the interferon-lambda 3 coding interleukin (IL)-28B gene to study the relationship between IL28B SNPs and outcome of HCV infection. Among 206 HIV-1-infected Europeans with evidence of HCV infection, 47 (23%) individuals had cleared HCV and 159 (77%) had developed chronic infection. The exonic rs8103142 CT, the promoter

rs12979860 CT and the intronic rs11881222 AG genotypes were associated with a decreased HCV clearance rate with adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.7), 0.4 (95% CI, 0.2-0.8) and 0.4 (95% CI, 0.2-0.8), respectively. The haplotype block TCG CTA was associated with a decreased HCV clearance rate (aOR 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.8). Further, we found significant differences in HCV RNA levels among individuals

chronically infected with HCV genotype 1 for rs8103142 and rs12979860 (P < 0.05). Chronically infected individuals with HCV genotype 3 and with the favourable Rabusertib concentration haplotype block CTA CTA had higher median HCV RNA levels than individuals with unfavourable haplotype blocks (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that IL28B may account for some differences in HCV outcome but that other factors including the viral genotype, host genetics and the host-virus interaction are likely to influence the outcome of HCV infection.”
“Approximately 2.5 million people worldwide are clinically blind because of diabetic retinopathy. In the non-proliferative stage, the pathophysiology of this ocular manifestation of diabetes presents as morphological and

functional disruption of the retinal vasculature, and dysfunction of retinal neurons. However, it is uncertain whether the vascular and neuronal changes are interdependent or independent events. In addition, the identity Selleck Tozasertib of the retinal neurons that are most susceptible to the hyperglycaemia associated with diabetes is unclear. Here, we characterise a novel model of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in adult zebrafish, in which the zebrafish were subjected to oscillating hyperglycaemia for 30 days. Visual function is diminished in hyperglycaemic fish. Significantly, hyperglycaemia disrupts cone photoreceptor neurons the most, as evidenced by prominent morphological degeneration and dysfunctional cone-mediated electroretinograms. Disturbances in the morphological integrity of the blood-retinal barrier were also evident. However, we demonstrate that these early vascular changes are not sufficient to induce cone photoreceptor dysfunction, suggesting that the vascular and neuronal complications in diabetic retinopathy can arise independently. Current treatments for diabetic retinopathy target the vascular complications.

This series summarizes the most important manuscripts, as selecte

This series summarizes the most important manuscripts, as selected by the Editor, that have been published in the Circulation portfolio. The objective of this new series is to provide our readership with a timely, comprehensive selection BEZ235 of important papers that are relevant to the quality and outcomes

as well as general cardiology audience. The studies included in this article represent the most significant research in the area of cardiovascular disease in women. (Circ Cardiovasc Quality and Outcomes. 2013; 6: e1-e7.)”
“Study design: Literature review.

Objectives: Globally map non-traumatic spinal cord injury (NTSCI) incidence, prevalence, survival, level of injury and aetiology. Propose a research framework for NTSCI prevention and launch a repository

of NTSCI data.

Setting: Initiative of the International Spinal Cord Society Prevention Committee.

Methods: Literature search of Medline and Embase (1959-June 2011). Relevant articles in any language learn more regarding adults with NTSCI were included. Stratification of information about incidence and prevalence into green/yellow/orange/red data quality ‘zones’ and comparisons between World Health Organisation (WHO) regions and countries.

Results: Three hundred and seventy-seven abstracts reviewed-45 of these from 24 countries in 12 of the 21 WHO global regions had relevant information. Only one publication had survival data. Prevalence data for NTSCI existed for only two countries, India (prevalence of 2 310/million population, Kashmir region) and Canada (prevalence of 1 120/million population). The incidence rates for

WHO regions were: Asia Pacific, high income 20/million population/year; Australasia (26/million population/year); Western Europe median of 6/million population/year; North America, high income median 76/million population/year (based on poor-quality studies); and Oceania 9/million population/year. Developed countries tended to have a higher proportion of cases with degenerative conditions and tumours. Developing countries, in comparison, tended to have a higher proportion of infections, particularly tuberculosis and HIV, although a number ATPase inhibitor also reported tumours as a major cause.

Conclusions: Insufficient survival, prevalence and incidence data are a predominant finding of this review. The piecemeal approach to epidemiological reporting of NTSCI, particularly failing to include sound regional population denominators, has exhausted its utility. Minimum data collection standards are required.”
“In addition to its known classical roles, the renin angiotensin system (RAS) has more subtle functions which include the regulation of emotional responses. Previous studies regarding the anxiety related behavior of RAS have showed controversial results. There is also evidence that oxidative stress accompanies angiotensin II infusion, but the role of AT1/AT2 specific receptors is not clear.

We reviewed

the long-term results of 41 treated super-mor

We reviewed

the long-term results of 41 treated super-morbid-obese patients. Mean initial BMI was 59.5 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2). Twelve patients (29.3 %) achieved after only LSG a BMI < 35 kg/m(2) (mean 31.9 +/- 2). They have lost 78.7 +/- 11.8 % of excess body weight (EBW). The remaining 28 patients lost 48.1 +/- 11.9 % of EBW and achieved a mean BMI of 44.2 +/- 4.3 kg/m(2), thus requiring the second stage. Ten of them (24.4 % of the total or 35.7 % of those in need), were submitted to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). They lost 71.9 +/- 4.3 % of EBW and have a mean BMI of 33.6 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2). The 18 remaining patients have a BMI of 42 +/- 3.6 kg/m(2) and they still suffer from morbid obesity. They have lost 48.5 +/- 8.7 % of EBW. The mean rate of EBW loss for all the available 39 patients LY2835219 inhibitor after either LSG or both LSG and LRYGBP has been 63.2 +/- 16.5 % after a mean follow-up of 42.8 +/- 19.5 months. Out of 41 patients, 1 died, 1 was lost to follow-up, 21 (51.2 %) achieved “”healthy”" BMIs and 18 (44 %) still require LRYGBP. The rate of cure of morbid obesity was 51.2 %. A remaining 44 % of super-morbid obese patients still need the completion LRYGBP but

have not undergone it. Half of these patients have lost > 50 % of their EBW. The two-stage strategy is an effective treatment plan for super-morbid obesity. A less patient-dependent strategy may be needed for a subset of patients.”
“Background: Clinical metabolomics is a recent “”omic”" technology which is defined as a global holistic overview of the personal metabolic status (fingerprinting). This technique allows to prove metabolic differences in different groups of people with Liproxstatin-1 the opportunity to explore interactions such as genotype-phenotype and genotype-environment type, whether normal or pathological. Aim: To study chronic kidney injury 1) using urine metabolomic profiles of young adults born extremely low-birth weight (ELBW) and 2) correlating a biomarker of kidney injury, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

selleck chemicals (NGAL), in order to confirm the metabolomic injury profile. Method: Urine samples were collected from a group of 18 people (mean: 24-year-old, std: 4.27) who were born with ELBW and a group of 13 who were born at term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) as control (mean 25-year-old, std: 5.15). Urine samples were analyzed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and then submitted to unsupervised and supervised multivariate analysis. Urine NGAL (uNGAL) was measured using ARCHITECT (ABBOTT diagnostic NGAL kit). Results: With a multivariate approach and using a supervised analysis method, PLS-DA, (partial least squares discriminant analysis) we could correlate ELBW metabolic profiles with uNGAL concentration. Conversely, uNGAL could not be correlated to AGA. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the relevance of the metabolomic technique as a predictive tool of the metabolic status of exELBW.

Safety was assessed across 12months Results Mean total treatment

Safety was assessed across 12months. Results Mean total treatment volume (107 patients) was 4.7mL of CaHA. At all points, physicians reported satisfaction of 75% or more, with 92% satisfaction at 12months. Most patients also reported being satisfied at all time points, with 80% satisfied at 12months. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Midface volumizing with CaHA results in high physician and patient satisfaction up to 12months from treatment.”
“BACKGROUND: The number of patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes will increase

dramatically over the next decade. Diabetes has been related to accelerated atherosclerosis and many patients with diabetes will require coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery Selleck AC220 utilizing saphenous vein grafts. After CABG, accelerated atherosclerosis in saphenous vein grafts leads to graft failure in approximately 50% of cases over a 10-year period. Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, has been shown to improve multiple metabolic parameters selleck in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, its role in the prevention of atherosclerosis progression is uncertain.

STUDY DESIGN: Veln-Coronary aTherOsclerosis and Rosiglitazone after bypass surgery (VICTORY) is a cardiometabolic trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes, one to 10 years after CABG, will be randomly assigned to receive rosiglitazone

(up) to 8 mg/day) or a placebo after qualifying angiography and intravascular ultrasound of a segment of one vein graft with or without a native anastomosed coronary artery. A comprehensive set of athero-thrombo-inflammatory markers will be serially assessed during the 12-month follow-tip period. Body fat distribution and body composition will be assessed by computed tomography and dual energy x-ray absorpriometry, respectively, at baseline, six months and 12 months follow-up. For atherosclerosis progression evaluation, repeat angiography and intravascular ultrasound will be performed

after 12 months follow-tip. The primary end point of the study will be the change in atherosclerotic plaque volume in a 40 mm or longer segment of one vein graft.

CONCLUSIONS: The VICTORY trial is the first cardiometabolic PF-00299804 study to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic and metabolic effects of rosiglitazone in post-CABG patients with type 2 diabetes.”
“Background Mid-face reflation requires a sophisticated knowledge of bony and soft tissue anatomy. Objective To blend knowledge of the relevant anatomy with clinical experience to generate procedural guidelines for reproducible volumization of the midface. Methods and Materials A demonstration of cadaver head dissection was followed by injection of colored hyaluronic acid and calcium hydroxylapatite fillers into cadaver heads in the anatomy laboratory. The injected cadaver heads were then dissected to assess the anatomical position of the injected fillers. Live patient injections followed using the anatomic learning.

(C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS All rights reserved “
“A green

(C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the mobilization of phosphorus from Senegalese natural rock phosphate (NRP) for growth of Gliricidia sepium and Sesbania sesban seedlings. Levels of tested NRP were compatible with high

AM fungal proliferation but modified pattern of root colonization according to plant cultivar and fungal species. NRP NVP-HSP990 applications and AM inoculation positively stimulated growth parameters and shoot mineral mass of G. sepium and S. sesban after four months cultivation. More than 200% of weight gains in S. sesban were recorded with all AM fungi combined with 600 or 800 mg NRP. With Gliricidia, only Glomus aggregatum in presence with these high

NRP levels induced the same tendency. Glomus fasciculatum enhanced twice height growth of Sesbania in presence of 400, 600 and 800 mg NRP. The impact of dual application of AM fungi and NRP on nutritional content was more marked with Sesbania than in Gliricidia seedlings.”
“Treatment with TNF alpha inhibitors increases risk of reactivating a latent tuberculosis\infection (LTBI). Therefore screening, prior to therapy with TNF alpha inhibitors, has been AG-14699 recommended, even in low-endemic areas such as well-developed Western Europe countries. We evaluated interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), as opposed to tuberculin skin test (TST), for detection of LTBI in refractory inflammatory disease patients prior to the initiation of a first TNF alpha inhibitor. In addition, we evaluated the impact of impaired cellular immunity on IGRA. Patients starting on TNF alpha inhibition were screened for LTBI by TST and IGRA (Quantiferon-TB Gold). Data on tuberculosis exposure and Bacillus Calmette-Gu,rin (BCG) vaccination were obtained. Cellular immunity was assessed by CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count. Nine out

of 56 patients (16.1%) tested positive for LTBI. A concordant positive result was present in three patients with a medical history of tuberculosis exposure. Six patients with discordant test results had either: (1) a negative TST and positive IGRA in combination with a medical history of tuberculosis exposure (n = 1) or (2) a positive TST and negative IGRA in combination with BCG vaccination (n = 3) or a medical history of tuberculosis exposure (n = 2). CD4(+) T lymphocyte selleck inhibitor cell counts were within normal limits, and no indeterminate results of IGRA were present. IGRA appears reliable for confirming TST and excluding a false positive TST (due to prior BCG vaccination) in this Dutch serie of patients. In addition, IGRA may detect one additional case of LTBI out of 56 patients that would otherwise be missed using solely TST. Immune suppression appears not to result significantly in lower CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell counts and indeterminate results of IGRA, despite systemic corticosteroid treatment in half of the patients.

“Aims: To evaluate whether changes in opening

“Aims: To evaluate whether changes in opening PLX4032 inhibitor detrusor pressure (ODP) are associated with resolution of overactive bladder symptoms in women undergoing surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse. Methods: Forty women with DO and OAB together with anterior wall prolapse who underwent a repair between 2003 and 2007 were studied. Each woman was assessed pre- and post-operatively with a clinical assessment and cystometry. Opening pressures were recorded pre- and post-operatively for each patient by retrospective review of the pressure

flow traces. Patients were divided into those who experienced resolution of OAB symptoms and those with persistent OAB symptoms. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test was used LY2835219 nmr to assess any change in opening pressures between these groups. Results: Resolution of urgency with an anterior repair was associated with a significant fall in ODP from a mean of 27.9 to 11.7 cm H(2)O(P = 0.01). There was no significant preoperative difference in ODP between women in whom urgency resolved and those in whom it did not. Conclusion: These results suggest that a fall

in ODP is associated with resolution of urgency in women undergoing prolapse surgery. This may imply that decreased urethral resistance is of importance in symptom resolution. Neurourol. Urodynam. 30:595-598, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Purpose: The aim of this work was to determine the content of total phenols, total flavonoids, anthocyanins, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.) alcohol, hydroalcohol Liproxstatin-1 and aqueous extracts.

Methods: The content of total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins of the alcohol, hydroalcohol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant assay was based on the measurement of DPPH absorbance at 517 nm caused by the reaction of DPPH

with the test sample. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition against selected test microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella abony while antifungal activity was tested against two organisms: Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans.

Results: The results of spectrophotometric investigations indicate that the content of total phenol compounds in the investigated extracts varied from 2.12 to 30.63 mg GAE g(-1) of fresh hawthorn sample. The content of anthocyanins ranged from 0.3207 to 3.168 mg of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside g(-1) of fresh hawthorn fruit. The fruit extracts showed high antioxidant activity with DPPH radical transformation value as high as 89.9 % in the methanol-water (50/50, v/v%)) extract. The ethanol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against all test microorganisms except two, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and one species of fungi, Aspergillus niger.

Half of each group rats were sacrificed after 1 week and the rest

Half of each group rats were sacrificed after 1 week and the rest after 2 weeks. The wound areas were used for histopathology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscope studies. Assessment of wound surface area, epidermal thickness, blood vessel proliferation and collagen deposition were performed.

RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in mean wound surface area, increase in mean epidermal thickness, blood vessel buy Lonafarnib proliferation and collagen deposition in the St group compared with the DC group.

CONCLUSION: Treatment with CD34+-enriched cells decreased wound size, accelerated epidermal healing and dramatically accelerated revascularization of the wounds compared

with the DC group.”
“Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of conducting

a complementary 8-week comprehensive lifestyle modification program (CLMP) compared to standard care in patients with bronchial asthma over a 6-month period. Methods. This was a randomized controlled pilot trial with two groups: intervention (N = 15) group and attention-placebo control (N = 14) group. The intervention group received an 8-week CLMP in addition to standard care. Quality of life, asthma control, Selleckchem MEK162 lung function, reduction of rescue medication, perceived stress, and psychosocial and spiritual status were measured at the end of the intervention and at the 4-month follow-up. Results. In the intervention group, there was a statistically

significant difference in the improvements of quality of life, asthma LDN-193189 ic50 control, lung function, and the reduction of rescue medication intake at both the end of the intervention and at the 4-month follow-up, with no change being observed in the control group. Significant stress reduction and greater psychosocial and spiritual well-being were observed during the 8-week CLMP in the intervention group. At the end of the intervention, the measures of stress and psychological and spiritual well-being reached statistical significance. Conclusions. Preliminary findings suggest that adding a CLMP to standard care in patients with bronchial asthma offers greater clinical benefit than standard care alone and also suggest that conducting a large randomized clinical trial is feasible.”
“Objective To determine corneal sensitivity in 20 healthy adult alpacas (40 eyes) in order to establish reference values.

Design Prospective study.

Animals Twenty healthy, adult alpacas.

Procedures Corneal sensitivity was determined by the corneal touch threshold (CTT) using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Five different regions of the cornea were evaluated (nasal, ventral, lateral, dorsal, and central).

Results Corneal touch threshold values (in mm filament length) obtained from five corneal regions demonstrated varying corneal sensitivities. The central region (34.5 +/- 7.1 mm) was the most sensitive, followed by the ventral (29.5 +/- 7.2 mm), medial (29.3 +/- 7.3 mm), dorsal (25.

Logistic regression analysis and the

Fisher exact test we

Logistic regression analysis and the

Fisher exact test were used for statistical analysis. Sensitivity, specifi city, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive likelihood ratio were calculated. To assess interobserver agreement, a kappa statistic was used.

Results: The positive predictive value of surface irregularities larger than 2 mm for MR tendinopathy or a partial- or fullthickness tear was 90% (37 of 41 patients). The sensitivity of radiographic changes selleck kinase inhibitor was 40%; the specifi city, 94%; the accuracy, 61%; the negative predictive value, 49%; and the positive likelihood ratio, 5.8. Interobserver agreement for detection of trochanteric surface irregularities on conventional radiographs ranged from 0.28 to 0.76.

Conclusion: Pronounced (>2 mm) surface irregularities of the greater trochanter on conventional radiographs were associated with abductor tendon MR abnormalities. NVP-LDE225 supplier (C)RSNA, 2010″
“Paris polyphylla var. chinensis is a perennial herb with medicinal properties

that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, this plant has been on the edge of extinction during the last few decades because of excessive deforestation based on the intense ethnopharmaceutical interest. We isolated 12 microsatellite loci from a (CT)(n)-enriched genomic library of P. polyphylla var. chinensis. The polymorphism at each locus was analyzed by screening 30 individuals from a natural population. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 5. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.467, with a mean of 0.247, and from 0.383 to 0.662 with a mean of 0.537, respectively. Six loci (Pp1, Pp3, Pp6, Pp7, Pp9,

and Pp12) were found to significantly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This may be due to the small population size, inbreeding or null alleles. Five of the pairwise comparisons (Pp1 and Pp4, Pp2 and Pp5, Pp2 and Pp9, Pp2 and Pp12, Pp11 and Pp12) exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium (P < 0.05). We conclude that these microsatellite markers will be useful for population genetic studies of P. polyphylla var. chinensis.”
“We investigate the AZD1390 mw electro-optic properties and high-frequency relative dielectric constants of epitaxially grown lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) and polycrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) films in a high-frequency range of up to 40 GHz for designing a high-speed ferroelectric thin-film modulator. We also demonstrate a ferroelectric thin-film Mach-Zehnder-type waveguide modulator using the epitaxially grown PLZT film. The use of a composite structure with a low dielectric coefficient substrate and a buffer layer enabled of a ferroelectric thin-film waveguide modulator with 40-Gb/s operation. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

5 years

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Complete d

5 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Complete ductal occlusion resulted in immediate removal of the volume overload state and eventual

return of cardiac chamber dimensions to reference range, suggesting Selleckchem Caspase inhibitor regression of eccentric hypertrophy. Systolic dysfunction persisted in some dogs but appeared to be clinically unimportant. Most cardiovascular changes were independent of patient age at the time of the procedure.”
“Thermodynamic stability of hydrogenated polar InP(111)B surfaces is systematically studied by performing first-principles density functional calculations. Employing a thermodynamic approach, the hydrogen chemical potential is considered as functions of temperature and pressure. The calculated Gibbs free energies demonstrate that the surface structures of InP(111)B strongly depend on growth condition and surface compositions. The (2 x 2) surfaces with 3PH(2)+PH(3), 3H+PH(3), 3H, and P trimer, and the (root 3 x root 3) surface with In adatom are stable phases under different chemical potentials of P and H, respectively. Moreover, our calculations suggest that the ideal surface and most of (root 3 x root 3) surfaces are just metastable due to their deviation from

electron counting rule. The calculated surface phase diagrams as the functions of temperature and pressure of H(2) reveal that the (2 x 2) surface with P trimer is stable under the experimental growth condition (550-800K). Once the samples are cooled down in a H-rich ambient, the hydrogenated InP(111)B surfaces are more favorable. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3331767].”
“Background: Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor Law enforcement officers use electronic control devices (ECDs), such as the TASER X26 (TASER International, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ, USA),

to control resisting subjects. Some of the debate on the safety of the devices has centered on the electrical characteristics of the devices. The electrical characteristics published by TASER International have selleck products historically based on discharges into a 400 Omega resistor. There are no studies that the authors are aware of that report the electrical characteristics under a physiologic load. In this study, we make an initial attempt to determine the electrical characteristics of the TASER X26 during a 5-second exposure in human volunteers.

Methods: Subjects received an exposure to the dry, bare chest (top probe), and abdomen (bottom probe) with a standard TASER X26 in the probe deployment mode for 5 seconds. There were 10-11 pulse captures during the 5 seconds. Resistance was calculated using the sum of the absolute values of the instantaneous voltage measurements divided by the sum of the absolute values of the instantaneous current measurements (Ohm’s Law).

Results: For the eight subjects, the mean spread between top and bottom probes was 12.1 inches (30.7 cm). The mean resistance was 602.3 Omega, with a range of 470.5-691.4 Omega.