Two sets of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human SSTR1, 2A,

Two sets of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human SSTR1, 2A, 3 and 5 have recently been developed by two independent laboratories using rabbit and mouse hybridomas. Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of both sets of mAbs for detection of SSTRs in NET samples as they are routinely collected in clinical practice.

Methods: Mouse and rabbit mAbs were characterized in SSTR1, 2A, 3 and 5-transfected HEK293 cells and human archival samples of pancreatic tissue and NET. Comparative analysis of mAbs was also conducted by immunostaining

of a tissue microarray composed of 75 cores of NET.

Results: Immunohistochemical analysis of HEK293 cells showed that both rabbit and mouse mAbs specifically detect their cognate receptor subtype, with mild cytoplasmic cross-reactivity observed for rabbit mAbs. Both sets of mAbs labeled normal pancreatic islets and showed PF-562271 price similar patterns SB431542 of immunoreactivity in NET controls. Direct comparison of mAb sets using a NET tissue microarray revealed strong correlation between rabbit and mouse mAbs against SSTR1 and 5, and moderate correlation for SSTR3. The rabbit mAb against SSTR2A showed higher affinity for its cognate receptor than the corresponding mouse mAb, resulting in a more reliable detection of this SSTR

Conclusions: mAbs

from both sets are reliable tools for the detection of SSTR1, 3 and 5, whereas the rabbit mAb against SSTR2A is recommended for use in routine clinical testing due to its superior binding affinity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Xenin-25 (Xen) is a 25-amino acid neurotensin-related peptide that activates neurotensin receptor-1 (NTSR1). We previously showed that Xen increases the effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) on insulin

release 1) in hyperglycemic mice via a cholinergic relay in the periphery independent from the central nervous system and 2) in humans with normal or impaired glucose tolerance, but not type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since this blunted response to Xen defines a novel defect in T2DM, it is important to understand how Xen regulates islet physiology.

On separate visits, subjects received intravenous graded glucose Volasertib price infusions with vehicle, GIP, Xen, or GIP plus Xen. The pancreatic polypeptide response was used as an indirect measure of cholinergic input to islets. The graded glucose infusion itself had little effect on the pancreatic polypeptide response whereas administration of Xen equally increased the pancreatic polypeptide response in humans with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and T2DM. The pancreatic polypeptide response to Xen was similarly amplified by GIP in all 3 groups. Antibody staining of human pancreas showed that NTSR1 is not detectable on islet endocrine cells, sympathetic neurons, blood vessels, or endothelial cells but is expressed at high levels on PGP9.5-positive axons in the exocrine tissue and at low levels on ductal epithelial cells. PGP9.

None of the non-cyano pyrethroids reduced open channel probabilit

None of the non-cyano pyrethroids reduced open channel probability, except bioallethrin, which gave a weak response.

Overall, based upon neurotoxicity data and the effect of pyrethroids on sodium, calcium and chloride ion channels, it is proposed that bioallethrin. cismethrin, tefluthrin, bifenthrin and permethrin belong to one common mechanism group and deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin belong to a second. Fenpropathrin and esfenvalerate occupy an intermediate position between these two groups. (c) 2009

Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Twelve commercial pyrethroid insecticides (technical-grade active ingredients) were evaluated individually for acute neurobehavioral manifestations of toxicity under conditions suited to

assist with determining whether they act by a common mechanism of toxicity. The pyrethroids Tanespimycin cell line that were click here tested reflect a diversity of structures, including six with an alpha-cyano phenoxybenzyl moiety (beta-cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin) and six without this moiety (bifenthrin, S-bioallethrin, permethrin, pyrethrins, resmethrin and tefluthrin).

These chemicals also present a variety of behavioral effects, including ones that are historically classified as causing a T (tremor), CS (choreoathetosis with salivation) or intermediate syndrome of intoxication, and others that have not previously been classified. Each pyrethroid that was tested consisted of the complement of isomers that occur in commercial products-a key factor for relevance for environmental and human exposure and for comparisons, since the biological activity of the individual isomers can vary tremendously.

Young-adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 per dose group) were administered a single dose of pyrethroid by oral gavage, in corn oil, at a volume of 5 ml/kg. Each was tested at a range of two or three dose levels, including a minimally toxic dose, to establish the more sensitive manifestations of toxicity, and a more toxic dose, to establish a more complete spectrum of neurobehavioral manifestations. SNS-032 molecular weight Animals were evaluated using a functional observational battery (FOB) that was designed to characterize and distinguish effects classically associated with T or CS syndromes of intoxication. The FOB was performed when manifestations of toxicity were most apparent at the time of peak effect (2, 4, or 8 h post-dosing) by observers who were blinded to dose group assignment, thus avoiding possible bias. The results from this study indicate that some pyrethroids clearly exhibit the historic classification symptoms of the T and CS syndromes while others do so less obviously. Use of the statistical technique of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) further helped interpret the study findings, as described in the accompanying paper (Breckenridge et al., 2009).

In addition, neurovirulent strains have potential to invade the c

In addition, neurovirulent strains have potential to invade the central nervous system (CNS), with potentially a lethal outcome. Early activation of defenses at all stages is essential to limit virus load and reduce the risk of neuronal damage, extensive zosteriform skin lesions, and catastrophic spread to the CNS. NKT

cells respond rapidly, and we have shown previously that CD1d-deficient mice are compromised in controlling a neuroinvasive isolate of HSV-1. We now compare infection in J alpha 18 GKO and CD1d GKO mice, allowing direct assessment of the importance of invariant V alpha 14(+) NKT cells and deduction of the role of the CD1d-restricted NKT cells with diverse T-cell receptors. The results indicate that both subsets Angiogenesis inhibitor of NKT cells contribute to virus control both in the afferent phase of infection

and in determining the mortality, neuroin-vasion, loss of sensory neurons, size of zosteriform, lesions and levels of latency. In particular, both are crucial determinants of clinical outcome, providing protection equivalent to a 1-log dose of virus. These NKT cells can be expected to provide protection at doses of virus that might be encountered naturally.”
“Diesel exhaust (DE) is composed of particles and gaseous compounds. Cell Cycle inhibitor It has been reported that DE causes pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. We have previously reported that fetal exposure to DE had deleterious effects to the reproductive system of mice offspring. However, there is still little known about the effects of prenatal exposure to DE to the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we found that prenatal

exposure to DE induced reduction of locomotion, furthermore, dopamine (DA) turnover was significantly decreased in the striatum over and nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to DE has an effect on the CNS. Hypolocomotion could be due to a decrease in DA turnover associated with DA nervous system abnormality. The present study provides the possibility that maternally inhaled DE might influence the development of central dopaminergic system and result in behavior disorder. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Short-hairpin RNAs based on microRNA (miRNA) precursors to express the artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) can specifically induce gene silencing and confer virus resistance in plants. The efficacy of RNA silencing depends not only on the nature of amiRNAs but also on the local structures of the target mRNAs. However, the lack of tools to accurately and reliably predict secondary structures within long RNAs makes it very hard to predict the secondary structures of a viral genome RNA in the natural infection conditions in vivo. In this study, we used an experimental approach to dissect how the endogenous silencing machinery acts on the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) genome. Transiently expressed 3′UTR RNAs were degraded by site-specific cleavage.

As such, screening is

As such, screening is see more an important tool in improving public health. In 1968, Wilson and Jungner proposed 10 criteria to consider prior to starting screening for a disease. This review discusses these criteria when applied to screening for chronic kidney disease with additional focus on (1) the validity of the test to be used for

screening; (2) which part of the population to screen; and (3) forms of bias to consider in screening. Kidney International ( 2009) 76, 694-699; doi: 10.1038/ki.2009.232; published online 17 June 2009″
“BACKGROUND

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common adverse mental health outcome among seriously injured civilians and military personnel who are survivors of trauma. Pharmacotherapy in the aftermath of PKC412 in vitro serious physical injury or exposure to traumatic events may be effective for the secondary prevention of PTSD.

METHODS

We identified 696 injured U. S. military personnel without serious traumatic brain injury from the Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database. Complete data on medications

administered were available for all personnel selected. The diagnosis of PTSD was obtained from the Career History Archival Medical and Personnel System and verified in a review of medical records.

RESULTS

Among the 696 patients studied, 243 received a diagnosis of PTSD and 453 did not. The use of morphine during early resuscitation and trauma care was significantly associated with a lower risk of PTSD after injury. Among the patients in whom PTSD developed, 61% received morphine; among those in whom PTSD did not develop, 76% received morphine (odds ratio, 0.47; P<0.001). This association remained significant after adjustment for injury severity, age, mechanism of injury, status with respect to amputation, and selected injury-related clinical factors.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings suggest that

the use of morphine during trauma care may reduce the risk of subsequent development of PTSD after serious injury.”
“The first endothelium-derived relaxing factor ( EDRF) ever identified is a gasotransmitter, nitric oxide during ( NO). Recent studies have provided several lines of evidence to support the premise that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), another gasotransmitter, is a new EDRF. H(2)S production is catalyzed in mammalian cells by cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) and/or cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE). The expression of CSE proteins and the activity of CBS have been observed in vascular endothelial cells. A measurable amount of H(2)S is produced from endothelium upon muscarinic cholinergic stimulation. The endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by H(2)S shares many common mechanistic traits with those of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Deficiency in CSE expression increases blood pressure in CSE knockout mice and significantly diminishes endothelium-dependent relaxation of resistance arteries.

(J Vasc Surg 2009;49:1154-61 )”
“Objectives

True ab

(J Vasc Surg 2009;49:1154-61.)”
“Objectives.

True abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with Marfan syndrome is relatively rare because most aortic aneurysms in this disease are dissecting aneurysms in the thoracic AG-014699 ic50 area. Therefore, its clinical characteristics and long-term outcome are still unclear.

Methods: We examined six patients (3 men, 3 women) with Marfan syndrome who had a true AAA. These patients underwent surgical treatment from 1972 to 2004, and we investigated the clinical and histologic findings.

Results: The patients were a median age of 45 years (range, 23-73 years) at the time of operation. The median maximum AAA diameter was 76 mm (range, 30-140 mm). Two AAAs ruptured, one of which had twice undergone stent graft insertion before open repair. There was one anastomotic aneurysm and three aortic dissections with additional repair. Marfan-related cardiac complications, all found perioperatively or postoperatively, comprised three patients with annuloaortic ectasia and four

with aortic regurgitation. Three patients died, including one death during the operation. Only selleck products slight mural thrombus was seen at nonruptured AAAs, and each surgical specimen of aneurysmal wall demonstrated significant cystic medial necrosis in the tunica media.

Conclusions. True AAAs in Marfan syndrome seemed to have several specific features, such as the tendency to occur in relatively young patients, lack of mural thrombus, and susceptibility to dissection and rupture, and the patients have poor life expectancy. Therefore, careful follow-up, keeping these features in mind, is important to treat Marfan syndrome patients with a true AAA. (J this website Vasc Surg 2009;49:1162-5.)”
“Objectives.

A variety of endovascular specialists perform carotid artery stenting (CAS), but little data exist on outcomes and resource utilization among these specialists. We analyzed differences in outcomes after CAS was performed by radiologists (RAD), cardiologists (CRD), and vascular surgeons (VAS).

Methods: Secondary data analysis of the 2005-2006 State Inpatient Databases for New Jersey were analyzed. Patients with elective admission to the hospital who had CAS procedure :<= 2 days after admission were identified. CAS outcomes were analyzed with respect to practitioner specialty and volume, associated complications, and hospital resource utilization.

Results. We identified 625 CAS cases. CRD performed 378 (60.5%), VAS, 199 (31.8%); and RAD, 48 (7.7%). The overall stroke rate was 2.72% and by specialty was CRD, 3.17%; VAS, 2.01%, and RAD, 2.08% (P = .6880). The overall cardiac complication rate was 2.40% (CRD, 2.12%; VAS, 3.02%; RAD, 2.08%; P = .7899). Renal and pulmonary complications were low (0.64% and 0.32%, respectively). Mean hospital length of stay (LOS) in days was significantly shorter for VAS (1.64 +/- 1.40) compared with RAD (2.

While precise molecular mechanisms of chromosome-specific periodi

While precise molecular mechanisms of chromosome-specific periodicities in gene expression have yet to be unraveled, their universal presence in different tissues adds another dimension to the current understanding of the genome organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Optic ataxia (OA) is generally thought of as a disorder of visually guided reaching movements that cannot be explained by any simple deficit in visual or motor

processing. In this paper we offer a new perspective on optic ataxia; we argue that the popular characterisation of this disorder is misleading and is unrepresentative of the pattern of reaching errors typically observed in OA patients. We begin our paper by reviewing recent neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and functional brain imaging studies that have led to the proposal that the medial parietal cortex in the vicinity 5-Fluoracil cell line of the parietal-occipital junction (POJ) – the key anatomical site associated with OA – represents reaching movements in eye-centred coordinates, and that this

ability is impaired in optic ataxia. Our perspective stresses the importance of the POJ and superior parietal regions of the human PPC for representing reaching movements in both extrinsic (eye-centred) and intrinsic (postural) coordinates, and proposes that it is the ability to simultaneously represent multiple spatial locations that must be directly compared with one another that is impaired in non-foveal OA patients. In support of this idea we review recent fMRI and behavioural studies conducted by our group that have investigated the anatomical correlates ��-Nicotinamide of posturally guided movements, and the movements guided by postural cues in patients presenting with optic ataxia. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are two widely used anthropometric indices of body

shape argued to convey different information about health and fertility. Both indices have also been shown to affect attractiveness ratings of female bodies. However, BMI and WHR are naturally positively correlated, complicating studies designed to identify their relative PS 341 importance in predicting health and attractiveness outcomes. We show that the correlation between BMI and WHR depends on the assumed model of subcutaneous fat deposition. An additive model, whereby fat is added to the waist and hips at a constant rate, predicts a correlation between BMI and WHR because with increasing fat, the difference between the waist and hips becomes smaller relative to total width. This model is supported by longitudinal and cross-sectional data. We parameterised the function relating WHR to BMI for white UK females of reproductive age, and used this function to statistically decompose body shape into two independent components.

To demonstrate the presence of excitotoxicity in A beta-induced s

To demonstrate the presence of excitotoxicity in A beta-induced septal damage, we compared rats injected with A beta(1-40)

into the MS/DB with animals treated with memantine prior, during and after A beta(1-40) injections. Controls were injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). MS/DB cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons were immunochemically identified. The number of MS/DB neurons was estimated using stereology. Our results find more show that memantine blocks A beta(1-40)-induced septal damage and suggest that excitotoxicity plays a role in basal forebrain neurodegeneration. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Noxious stimuli can usually cause the aversive sensations, pain and itch. The initial integration of such noxious information occurs in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord (SDH), which is very important for understanding pain sensation and developing effective analgesic strategies. The circuits formed by pools of neurons and terminals within SDH are accepted as the platform for such complicated integrations and are highly plastic under conditions of inflammatory or neuropathic pain. Recent literature offers a complicated, yet versatile view of SDH intrinsic circuits

with both inhibitory and excitatory components. However, our knowledge about the adaptative regulation of SDH local circuits is still far from sufficient due to the incomplete understanding of their organization as they are intermingled with primary afferent fibers (PAFs), poorly understood or identified SDH neurons, somehow contradictory data for descending control systems. A more positive view emphasizes abundant modern data on SDH neuron morphology and physiology riding on the back of significant technological advancements used in neuroscience. Reviewing the current literature on this topic thus produced an integrated understanding of SDH neurons and the SDH local circuits involved in noxious

MK-1775 cost transmission and modulation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The dose-dependent effect of isoflurane on regional CBF of cortical and subcortical structures in anesthetized macaque monkeys was investigated with the Continuous ASL MRI technique. High concentration of isoflurane resulted in global CBF increase and blood pressure decrease. Evident CBF change was observed in the subcortical structures. Specifically, CBF in thalamus and cerebellum was increased about 39% and 55% when isoflurane concentration was changed from 0.75% to 1.5%, respectively. Also, those regional CBF changes correlated linearly with isoflurane inspiratory concentrations, indicating impaired CBF autoregulation in these structures. In contrast, no obvious CBF changes were observed in anterior cingulated cortex, motor cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and caudate.

Consensus statements from transplant societies around the world o

Consensus statements from transplant societies around the world offer guidance for determining donor eligibility.

Conclusions: The available literature on stone related morbidity in donors and recipients is extremely limited. It would appear that the risk of recurrence and subsequent morbidity in renal donors with a solitary kidney is low but not insignificant. Rare stone related adverse events are reported for recipients of an allograft with a stone left in situ. Renal donors Ruboxistaurin cost and recipients should be educated regarding their unique risk perspectives. Long-term followup is mandatory.”
“We report on the cloning

and molecular characterization of the rat carrier Slc10a4 and its cellular localization in the CNS by immunohistochemistry. Slc10a4 is the rat counterpart of the human IWP-2 nmr orphan carrier SLC10A4, which was recently reported to be highly

expressed in brain and placenta. Both carriers belong to the solute carrier family SLC10, formerly named the “”sodium/bile acid cotransporter family.”" So SLC10A4/Slc10a4 has a phylogenetic relationship to the Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide Ntcp (Slc10a1) and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter Asbt (Slc10a2). The rat Slc10a4 protein consists of 437 amino acids and exhibits a seven transmembrane domain topology with N(exo)/C(cyt) trans-orientation of the N- and C-terminal ends. Expression of the Slc10a4 protein was detected in motor regions of the spinal cord and rhombencephalon, as well as in mesopontine cholinergic neurons, the medial habenula, cholinergic areas of the forebrain, and the gut myenteric plexus. Co-localization studies with the cholinergic marker proteins choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) demonstrated expression of Slc10a4 in cholinergic neurons. Despite its close phylogenetic

relationship to Ntcp, Slc10a4 showed no transport activity for the Ntcp substrates taurocholate, estrone-3-sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone Danusertib sulfate, and pregnenolone sulfate when expressed in HEK293 cells or Xenopus laevis oocytes. Slc10a4 also did not transport choline, which is a substrate of CHT1. Although the functional properties of Slc10a4 could not be elucidated in this study, Slc10a4 is regarded as a new marker protein for cholinergic neurons in the rat CNS. (c) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: There are reported links between erectile dysfunction and sleep disorders. We reviewed the physiology of penile erection during sleep and the possible links between the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction and the most commonly diagnosed sleep disorders.

The serum MDA and CAT

The serum MDA and CAT Repotrectinib order levels of the patients with

schizophrenia were higher than that of the controls before ECT (n = 20) but there was no significant difference in the serum NO and GSH levels of the patient groups compared to the controls. We found that the NO levels of the patients were higher than the controls in the group experiencing their first episode but not in the chronic group. There was a significant clinical improvement in the patients in terms of BPRS. SANS and SAPS reduction after the 9th ECT, but not the 1st ECT. Serum MDA levels were significantly reduced compared to the baseline after the 9th ECT session although there was no significant difference after the 1st session. Separate evaluation of the patient groups revealed that the significant MDA decrease following ECT was in the patients experiencing their first episode and not in the chronic group. No significant difference was noted in the serum levels of other oxidant and antioxidant molecules after either the 1st or 9th ECT session. These results suggest that ECT

does not produce any negative effect on oxidative stress in patients with schizophrenia. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;6)(p11;p13) (t(81 6) AML) has unique clinico-biological characteristics, but its microRNA pattern is unknown. We analyzed find more 670 microRNAs in seven patients with t(8;16) AML and 113 with other AML subtypes. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that all t(8;16) AML patients grouped in an independent cluster. Supervised analysis revealed a distinctive signature of 94-microRNAs, most of which were downregulated, including miR-21 and cluster miR-17-92. The mRNA expression analysis of two known transcription factors of these microRNAs (STAT3 and c-Myc,

respectively) showed significant downregulation of STAT3 https://www.selleck.cn/products/gilteritinib-asp2215.html (P=0.04). A bioinformatic analysis showed that 29 of the downregulated microRNAs might be regulated by methylation; we treated a t(81 6) AML sample with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-dC) and trichostatin A and found that 27 microRNAs were re-expressed after treatment. However, there was no difference in methylation status between t(8;16) and other AML subtypes, either overall or in the microRNA promoter. Cross-correlation of mRNA and microRNA expression identified RET as a potential target of several microRNAs. A Renilla-luciferase assay and flow cytometry after transfection with pre-microRNAs confirmed that RET is regulated by miR-218, nniR-128, miR-27b, miR-15a and miR-195. In conclusion, t(8;16) AML harbors a specific microRNA signature that is partially epigenetically regulated and targets RET proto-oncogene. Leukemia (2013) 27, 595-603; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.278″
“Background: Some but not all antipsychotics have been shown to modulate plasma cytokine levels in schizophrenia patients.

05)

CONCLUSION: This randomized and blinded trial dis

05).

CONCLUSION: This randomized and blinded trial disclosed a significant better primary efficacy variable (Rankin Stroke Score after 12 months) in the MWA patient group. We suggest that proactive intensive care management with MWA-tailored cerebrospinal fluid drainage during the first week improves aneurysmal SAH www.selleckchem.com/products/mx69.html outcome.”
“BACKGROUND: Traditional treatment options for optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSMs) include observation, surgery, and radiotherapy, but to date none of these has become the clear treatment of choice.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate

the effectiveness and safety of multisession radiosurgery for ONSMs.

METHODS: From May 2004 to June 2008, 21 patients with ONSMs were treated by radiosurgery using the frameless CyberKnife system. Patient age ranged from 36 to 73 years (mean, 54 years). All patients were treated using multisession radiosurgery, with 5 fractions of 5 Gy each to a total dose of 25 Gy prescribed to the 75% to 85% isodose line. Patients were evaluated for tumor growth control 5-Fluoracil price and visual function.

RESULTS: The median pretreatment tumor volume

was 2.8 mL (range, 0.3-23 mL). The mean follow-up was 30 months (range, 11-68 months). All patients tolerated treatment well, with only 1 patient in whom a mild optic neuropathy developed (which remitted after systemic steroid therapy). No other acute or late radiation-induced toxicities were observed. No patients showed ONSM progression on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. Two patients (10%) had a partial response. www.selleck.cn/products/isrib-trans-isomer.html No patients had worsening of visual function; visual function was stable

in 65% and improved in 35% of patients.

CONCLUSION: Multisession radiosurgery for ONSMs was found to be safe and effective. The preliminary results from this study, in terms of growth control, visual function improvement, and toxicity, are quite promising. Further investigations are warranted.”
“BACKGROUND: The ventralis intermedius (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus is the primary surgical target for treatment of tremor. Most centers rely on indirect targeting based on atlas-defined coordinates rather than patient-specific anatomy, making intraoperative physiological mapping critical. Detailed identification of this target based on patient-specific anatomic features can help optimize the surgical treatment of tremor.

OBJECTIVE: To study colored fractional anisotropic images and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to identify characteristic magnetic resonance appearances of the VIM nucleus.

METHODS: Four patients undergoing stereotactic surgery for essential tremor (ET) were retrospectively studied with analysis of magnetic resonance imaging-based colored fractional anisotropy (FA) images and fiber tractography. All were scanned with a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging unit, and all sequences were obtained before frame placement.