inhibitory neurons on memory formation. We chose to use a hippocampus-dependent behavioral task involving location-dependent object recognition (LOR). The double transgenic mice, with the AlstRs selectively expressed in excitatory pyramidal neurons or inhibitory interneurons, were cannulated, targeting dorsal hippocampus to allow the infusion of the receptor ligand (the allatostatin [AL] peptide) in a time dependent manner. Compared to control animals, AL-infused animals showed no long-term memory for object location. While inactivation of excitatory or inhibitory neurons produced opposite effects on hippocampal circuit activity in vitro, the effects in vivo were similar.
Both types of inactivation experiments resulted in mice exhibiting no long-term memory for object location. Together, these results demonstrate Akt inhibitor that the Cre-directed, AlstR-based system is a powerful tool for cell-type specific manipulations in a behaving animal and suggest that activity of either excitatory neurons or inhibitory interneurons
is essential for proper long-term object location memory formation.”
“The longitudinal relationship between dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFAs ratio and periodontal disease in 235 Japanese subjects for whom data were available for the years 2003-2006 was CYT387 mouse investigated. PUFAs intake was assessed at baseline with a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Full-mouth periodontal status, measured as the clinical attachment level (CAL), was recorded at baseline and once a year for
3 years. The number of teeth with a change in the loss of CAL >= 3 mm at any site over a year was calculated as ‘periodontal disease events’. Poisson regression analysis was conducted, with dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFAs ratio as the main predictor, to estimate its influence on periodontal disease events. A high dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFAs ratio was significantly associated with greater number of periodontal disease events. The findings suggest the dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFAs ratio is associated with periodontal disease among older Japanese. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The RG7420 mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) is dependent on mTOR signaling in the dorsal hippocampus, and whether E-2-induced mTOR signaling is dependent on dorsal hippocampal phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. We first demonstrated that the enhancement of object recognition induced by E-2 was blocked by dorsal hippocampal inhibition of ERK, PI3K, or mTOR activation.